Maternal dietary interventions during pregnancy with fish oil and high dose vitamin D have been shown to reduce the incidence of asthma and wheeze in offspring, potentially through microbial effects in pregnancy or early childhood. Here we analyze the bacterial compositions in longitudinal samples from 695 pregnant women and their children according to intervention group in a nested, factorial, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of n-3 long-chain fatty acids and vitamin D supplementation. The dietary interventions affect the infant airways, but not the infant fecal or maternal vaginal microbiota. Changes in overall beta diversity are observed, which in turn associates with a change in immune mediator profile. In addition, airway microbial maturation and the relative abundance of specific bacterial genera are altered. Furthermore, mediation analysis reveals the changed airway microbiota to be a minor and non-significant mediator of the protective effect of the dietary interventions on risk of asthma. Our results demonstrate the potential of prenatal dietary supplements as manipulators of the early airway bacterial colonization.