Prediction of Pectin Yield and Quality by FTIR and Carbohydrate Microarray Analysis

Andreas Baum, Malgorzata Maria Dominiak, Silvia Vidal-Melgosa, William G. T. Willats, Karen M. Søndergaard, Per W. Hansen, Anne S. Meyer, Jørn Dalgaard Mikkelsen

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Pectin production is complex, and final product quality assessment is generally accomplished at the end of the process using time-consuming off-line laboratory analysis. In this study, pectin was extracted from lime peel either by acid or by enzymes. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and carbohydrate microarray analysis were performed directly on the crude lime peel extracts during the time course of the extractions. Multivariate analysis of the data was carried out to predict final pectin yields. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was found applicable for determining the optimal extraction time for the enzymatic and acidic extraction processes, respectively. The combined results of FTIR and carbohydrate microarray analysis suggested major differences in the crude pectin extracts obtained by enzymatic and acid extraction, respectively. Enzymatically extracted pectin, thus, showed a higher degree of esterification (DE 82 %) than pectin extracted by acid (DE 67 %) and was moreover found to be more heterogeneously esterified when probed with the monoclonal antibodies JIM5, JIM7, and LM20. The data infer that enzymatic pectin extraction allows for extraction of complex, high DE pectin, and that FTIR and carbohydrate microarray analysis have potential to be developed into online process analysis tools for prediction of pectin extraction yields and pectin features from measurements on crude pectin extracts.
Original languageEnglish
JournalFood and Bioprocess Technology
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)143–154
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • Antibodies
  • Chemometrics
  • Enzymatic extraction
  • Multivariate analysis
  • Online monitoring
  • PLS

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