Power-to-fuels via solid-oxide electrolyzer: Operating window and techno-economics

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article – Annual report year: 2019Researchpeer-review

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Power-to-fuels via solid-oxide electrolyzer: Operating window and techno-economics. / Wang, Ligang; Chen, Ming; Küngas, Rainer; Lin, Tzu-En; Diethelm, Stefan; Maréchal, François; Van herle, Jan.

In: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 11, 2019, p. 174-187.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article – Annual report year: 2019Researchpeer-review

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Wang, Ligang ; Chen, Ming ; Küngas, Rainer ; Lin, Tzu-En ; Diethelm, Stefan ; Maréchal, François ; Van herle, Jan. / Power-to-fuels via solid-oxide electrolyzer: Operating window and techno-economics. In: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2019 ; Vol. 11. pp. 174-187.

Bibtex

@article{6a46c13e091d4087bff2dbda8be96b16,
title = "Power-to-fuels via solid-oxide electrolyzer: Operating window and techno-economics",
abstract = "Power-to-fuel systems via solid-oxide electrolysis are promising for storing excess renewable electricity by efficient electrolysis of steam (or co-electrolysis of steam and CO2) into hydrogen (or syngas), which can be further converted into synthetic fuels with plant-wise thermal integration. Electrolysis stack performance and durability determine the system design, performance, and long-term operating strategy; thus, solid-oxide electrolyzer based power-to-fuels were investigated from the stack to system levels. At the stack level, the data from a 6000-h stack testing under laboratory isothermal conditions were used to calibrate a quasi-2D model, which enables to predict practical, isothermal stack performance with reasonable accuracy. Feasible stack operating windows meeting various design specifications (e.g., specific syngas composition) were further generated to support the selection of operating points. At the system level, with the chosen similar stack operating points, various power-to-fuel systems, including power-to-hydrogen, power-to-methane, power-to-methanol (dimethyl ether) and power-to-gasoline, were compared techno-economically considering system-level heat integration. Several operating strategies of the stack were compared to address the increase in stack temperature due to degradation. The modeling results show that the system efficiency for producing H2, methane, methanol/dimethyl ether and gasoline decreases sequentially from 94{\%} (power-to-H2) to 64{\%} (power-to-gasoline), based on a higher heating value. Co-electrolysis, which allows better heat integration, can improve the efficiency of the systems with less exothermic fuel-synthesis processes (e.g., methanol/dimethyl ether) but offers limited advantages for power-to-methane and power-to-gasoline systems. In a likely future scenario, where the growing amount of electricity from renewable sources results in increasing periods of a negative electricity price, solid oxide electrolyser based power-to-fuel systems are highly suitable for levelling the price fluctuations in an economic way.",
keywords = "Power-to-fuel, Energy storage, Solid-oxide electrolysis, Co-electrolysis, Operating window, Degradation",
author = "Ligang Wang and Ming Chen and Rainer K{\"u}ngas and Tzu-En Lin and Stefan Diethelm and Fran{\cc}ois Mar{\'e}chal and {Van herle}, Jan",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1016/j.rser.2019.04.071",
language = "English",
volume = "11",
pages = "174--187",
journal = "Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews",
issn = "1364-0321",
publisher = "Pergamon Press",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Power-to-fuels via solid-oxide electrolyzer: Operating window and techno-economics

AU - Wang, Ligang

AU - Chen, Ming

AU - Küngas, Rainer

AU - Lin, Tzu-En

AU - Diethelm, Stefan

AU - Maréchal, François

AU - Van herle, Jan

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Power-to-fuel systems via solid-oxide electrolysis are promising for storing excess renewable electricity by efficient electrolysis of steam (or co-electrolysis of steam and CO2) into hydrogen (or syngas), which can be further converted into synthetic fuels with plant-wise thermal integration. Electrolysis stack performance and durability determine the system design, performance, and long-term operating strategy; thus, solid-oxide electrolyzer based power-to-fuels were investigated from the stack to system levels. At the stack level, the data from a 6000-h stack testing under laboratory isothermal conditions were used to calibrate a quasi-2D model, which enables to predict practical, isothermal stack performance with reasonable accuracy. Feasible stack operating windows meeting various design specifications (e.g., specific syngas composition) were further generated to support the selection of operating points. At the system level, with the chosen similar stack operating points, various power-to-fuel systems, including power-to-hydrogen, power-to-methane, power-to-methanol (dimethyl ether) and power-to-gasoline, were compared techno-economically considering system-level heat integration. Several operating strategies of the stack were compared to address the increase in stack temperature due to degradation. The modeling results show that the system efficiency for producing H2, methane, methanol/dimethyl ether and gasoline decreases sequentially from 94% (power-to-H2) to 64% (power-to-gasoline), based on a higher heating value. Co-electrolysis, which allows better heat integration, can improve the efficiency of the systems with less exothermic fuel-synthesis processes (e.g., methanol/dimethyl ether) but offers limited advantages for power-to-methane and power-to-gasoline systems. In a likely future scenario, where the growing amount of electricity from renewable sources results in increasing periods of a negative electricity price, solid oxide electrolyser based power-to-fuel systems are highly suitable for levelling the price fluctuations in an economic way.

AB - Power-to-fuel systems via solid-oxide electrolysis are promising for storing excess renewable electricity by efficient electrolysis of steam (or co-electrolysis of steam and CO2) into hydrogen (or syngas), which can be further converted into synthetic fuels with plant-wise thermal integration. Electrolysis stack performance and durability determine the system design, performance, and long-term operating strategy; thus, solid-oxide electrolyzer based power-to-fuels were investigated from the stack to system levels. At the stack level, the data from a 6000-h stack testing under laboratory isothermal conditions were used to calibrate a quasi-2D model, which enables to predict practical, isothermal stack performance with reasonable accuracy. Feasible stack operating windows meeting various design specifications (e.g., specific syngas composition) were further generated to support the selection of operating points. At the system level, with the chosen similar stack operating points, various power-to-fuel systems, including power-to-hydrogen, power-to-methane, power-to-methanol (dimethyl ether) and power-to-gasoline, were compared techno-economically considering system-level heat integration. Several operating strategies of the stack were compared to address the increase in stack temperature due to degradation. The modeling results show that the system efficiency for producing H2, methane, methanol/dimethyl ether and gasoline decreases sequentially from 94% (power-to-H2) to 64% (power-to-gasoline), based on a higher heating value. Co-electrolysis, which allows better heat integration, can improve the efficiency of the systems with less exothermic fuel-synthesis processes (e.g., methanol/dimethyl ether) but offers limited advantages for power-to-methane and power-to-gasoline systems. In a likely future scenario, where the growing amount of electricity from renewable sources results in increasing periods of a negative electricity price, solid oxide electrolyser based power-to-fuel systems are highly suitable for levelling the price fluctuations in an economic way.

KW - Power-to-fuel

KW - Energy storage

KW - Solid-oxide electrolysis

KW - Co-electrolysis

KW - Operating window

KW - Degradation

U2 - 10.1016/j.rser.2019.04.071

DO - 10.1016/j.rser.2019.04.071

M3 - Journal article

VL - 11

SP - 174

EP - 187

JO - Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews

JF - Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews

SN - 1364-0321

ER -