Potential Gradient-Driven Dual-Functional Electrochromic and Electrochemical Device Based on a Shared Electrode Design

Gang Xu, Wei Zhang*, Guangjun Zhu, Huan Xia, Hanning Zhang, Qian Xie, Peng Jin, Haoyu Zhang, Chengjie Yi, Ruqian Zhang, Lingfeng Ji, Tao Shui, Nosipho Moloto, Wei She*, Zheng Ming Sun*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


The integration of electrochromic devices and energy storage systems in wearable electronics is highly desirable yet challenging, because self-powered electrochromic devices often require an open system design for continuous replenishment of the strong oxidants to enable the coloring/bleaching processes. A self-powered electrochromic device has been developed with a close configuration by integrating a Zn/MnO2 ionic battery into the Prussian blue (PB)-based electrochromic system. Zn and MnO2 electrodes, as dual shared electrodes, the former one can reduce the PB electrode to the Prussian white (PW) electrode and serves as the anode in the battery; the latter electrode can oxidize the PW electrode to its initial state and acts as the cathode in the battery. The bleaching/coloring processes are driven by the gradient potential between Zn/PB and PW/MnO2 electrodes. The as-prepared Zn||PB||MnO2 system demonstrates superior electrochromic performance, including excellent optical contrast (80.6%), fast self-bleaching/coloring speed (2.0/3.2 s for bleaching/coloring), and long-term self-powered electrochromic cycles. An air-working Zn||PB||MnO2 device is also developed with a 70.3% optical contrast, fast switching speed (2.2/4.8 s for bleaching/coloring), and over 80 self-bleaching/coloring cycles. Furthermore, the closed nature enables the fabrication of various flexible electrochromic devices, exhibiting great potentials for the next-generation wearable electrochromic devices.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2401948
JournalAdvanced Science
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2024


  • Electrochromic device
  • Gradient potential
  • Self-powered
  • Shared electrode
  • Zinc-ion battery


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