Postrelease survival, vertical and horizontal movements, and thermal habitats of five species of pelagic sharks in the central Pacific Ocean

Michael K. Musyl, Richard W. Brill, Daniel S. Curran, Nuno M. Fragoso, Lianne M. McNaughton, Anders Nielsen, Bert S. Kikkawa, Christopher D. Moyes

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Abstract

From 2001 to 2006, 71 pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) were deployed on five species of pelagic shark (blue shark [Prionace glauca]; shortfin mako [Isurus oxyrinchus]; silky shark [Carcharhinus falciformis]; oceanic whitetip shark [C. longimanus]; and bigeye thresher [Alopias superciliosus]) in the central Pacific Ocean to determine speciesspecific movement patterns and survival rates after release from longline fishing gear. Only a single postrelease mortality could be unequivocally documented: a male blue shark which succumbed seven days after release. Meta-analysis of published reports and the current study (n=78 reporting PSATs) indicated that the summary effect of postrelease mortality for blue sharks was 15% (95% CI, 8.5-25.1%) and suggested that catch-and-release in longline fisheries can be a viable management tool to protect parental biomass in shark populations. Pelagic sharks displayed species-specific depth and temperature ranges, although with significant individual temporal and spatial variability in vertical movement patterns, which were also punctuated by stochastic events (e.g., El Nino-Southern Oscillation). Pelagic species can be separated into three broad groups based on daytime temperature preferences by using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averaging clustering on a Kolmogorov-Smirnov Dmax distance matrix: 1) epipelagic species (silky and oceanic whitetip sharks), which spent >95% of their time at temperatures within 2 degrees C of sea surface temperature; 2) mesopelagic-I species (blue sharks and shortfin makos, which spent 95% of their time at temperatures from 9.7 degrees to 26.9 degrees C and from 9.4 degrees to 25.0 degrees C, respectively; and 3) mesopelagic-II species (bigeye threshers), which spent 95% of their time at temperatures from 6.7 degrees to 21.2 degrees C. Distinct thermal niche partitioning based on body size and latitude was also evident within epipelagic species.
Original languageEnglish
JournalFishery Bulletin
Volume109
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)341-368
ISSN0090-0656
Publication statusPublished - 2011

Cite this

Musyl, M. K., Brill, R. W., Curran, D. S., Fragoso, N. M., McNaughton, L. M., Nielsen, A., ... Moyes, C. D. (2011). Postrelease survival, vertical and horizontal movements, and thermal habitats of five species of pelagic sharks in the central Pacific Ocean. Fishery Bulletin, 109(4), 341-368.
Musyl, Michael K. ; Brill, Richard W. ; Curran, Daniel S. ; Fragoso, Nuno M. ; McNaughton, Lianne M. ; Nielsen, Anders ; Kikkawa, Bert S. ; Moyes, Christopher D. / Postrelease survival, vertical and horizontal movements, and thermal habitats of five species of pelagic sharks in the central Pacific Ocean. In: Fishery Bulletin. 2011 ; Vol. 109, No. 4. pp. 341-368.
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title = "Postrelease survival, vertical and horizontal movements, and thermal habitats of five species of pelagic sharks in the central Pacific Ocean",
abstract = "From 2001 to 2006, 71 pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) were deployed on five species of pelagic shark (blue shark [Prionace glauca]; shortfin mako [Isurus oxyrinchus]; silky shark [Carcharhinus falciformis]; oceanic whitetip shark [C. longimanus]; and bigeye thresher [Alopias superciliosus]) in the central Pacific Ocean to determine speciesspecific movement patterns and survival rates after release from longline fishing gear. Only a single postrelease mortality could be unequivocally documented: a male blue shark which succumbed seven days after release. Meta-analysis of published reports and the current study (n=78 reporting PSATs) indicated that the summary effect of postrelease mortality for blue sharks was 15{\%} (95{\%} CI, 8.5-25.1{\%}) and suggested that catch-and-release in longline fisheries can be a viable management tool to protect parental biomass in shark populations. Pelagic sharks displayed species-specific depth and temperature ranges, although with significant individual temporal and spatial variability in vertical movement patterns, which were also punctuated by stochastic events (e.g., El Nino-Southern Oscillation). Pelagic species can be separated into three broad groups based on daytime temperature preferences by using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averaging clustering on a Kolmogorov-Smirnov Dmax distance matrix: 1) epipelagic species (silky and oceanic whitetip sharks), which spent >95{\%} of their time at temperatures within 2 degrees C of sea surface temperature; 2) mesopelagic-I species (blue sharks and shortfin makos, which spent 95{\%} of their time at temperatures from 9.7 degrees to 26.9 degrees C and from 9.4 degrees to 25.0 degrees C, respectively; and 3) mesopelagic-II species (bigeye threshers), which spent 95{\%} of their time at temperatures from 6.7 degrees to 21.2 degrees C. Distinct thermal niche partitioning based on body size and latitude was also evident within epipelagic species.",
author = "Musyl, {Michael K.} and Brill, {Richard W.} and Curran, {Daniel S.} and Fragoso, {Nuno M.} and McNaughton, {Lianne M.} and Anders Nielsen and Kikkawa, {Bert S.} and Moyes, {Christopher D.}",
year = "2011",
language = "English",
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pages = "341--368",
journal = "Fishery Bulletin",
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Musyl, MK, Brill, RW, Curran, DS, Fragoso, NM, McNaughton, LM, Nielsen, A, Kikkawa, BS & Moyes, CD 2011, 'Postrelease survival, vertical and horizontal movements, and thermal habitats of five species of pelagic sharks in the central Pacific Ocean', Fishery Bulletin, vol. 109, no. 4, pp. 341-368.

Postrelease survival, vertical and horizontal movements, and thermal habitats of five species of pelagic sharks in the central Pacific Ocean. / Musyl, Michael K.; Brill, Richard W.; Curran, Daniel S.; Fragoso, Nuno M.; McNaughton, Lianne M.; Nielsen, Anders; Kikkawa, Bert S.; Moyes, Christopher D.

In: Fishery Bulletin, Vol. 109, No. 4, 2011, p. 341-368.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Postrelease survival, vertical and horizontal movements, and thermal habitats of five species of pelagic sharks in the central Pacific Ocean

AU - Musyl, Michael K.

AU - Brill, Richard W.

AU - Curran, Daniel S.

AU - Fragoso, Nuno M.

AU - McNaughton, Lianne M.

AU - Nielsen, Anders

AU - Kikkawa, Bert S.

AU - Moyes, Christopher D.

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - From 2001 to 2006, 71 pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) were deployed on five species of pelagic shark (blue shark [Prionace glauca]; shortfin mako [Isurus oxyrinchus]; silky shark [Carcharhinus falciformis]; oceanic whitetip shark [C. longimanus]; and bigeye thresher [Alopias superciliosus]) in the central Pacific Ocean to determine speciesspecific movement patterns and survival rates after release from longline fishing gear. Only a single postrelease mortality could be unequivocally documented: a male blue shark which succumbed seven days after release. Meta-analysis of published reports and the current study (n=78 reporting PSATs) indicated that the summary effect of postrelease mortality for blue sharks was 15% (95% CI, 8.5-25.1%) and suggested that catch-and-release in longline fisheries can be a viable management tool to protect parental biomass in shark populations. Pelagic sharks displayed species-specific depth and temperature ranges, although with significant individual temporal and spatial variability in vertical movement patterns, which were also punctuated by stochastic events (e.g., El Nino-Southern Oscillation). Pelagic species can be separated into three broad groups based on daytime temperature preferences by using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averaging clustering on a Kolmogorov-Smirnov Dmax distance matrix: 1) epipelagic species (silky and oceanic whitetip sharks), which spent >95% of their time at temperatures within 2 degrees C of sea surface temperature; 2) mesopelagic-I species (blue sharks and shortfin makos, which spent 95% of their time at temperatures from 9.7 degrees to 26.9 degrees C and from 9.4 degrees to 25.0 degrees C, respectively; and 3) mesopelagic-II species (bigeye threshers), which spent 95% of their time at temperatures from 6.7 degrees to 21.2 degrees C. Distinct thermal niche partitioning based on body size and latitude was also evident within epipelagic species.

AB - From 2001 to 2006, 71 pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) were deployed on five species of pelagic shark (blue shark [Prionace glauca]; shortfin mako [Isurus oxyrinchus]; silky shark [Carcharhinus falciformis]; oceanic whitetip shark [C. longimanus]; and bigeye thresher [Alopias superciliosus]) in the central Pacific Ocean to determine speciesspecific movement patterns and survival rates after release from longline fishing gear. Only a single postrelease mortality could be unequivocally documented: a male blue shark which succumbed seven days after release. Meta-analysis of published reports and the current study (n=78 reporting PSATs) indicated that the summary effect of postrelease mortality for blue sharks was 15% (95% CI, 8.5-25.1%) and suggested that catch-and-release in longline fisheries can be a viable management tool to protect parental biomass in shark populations. Pelagic sharks displayed species-specific depth and temperature ranges, although with significant individual temporal and spatial variability in vertical movement patterns, which were also punctuated by stochastic events (e.g., El Nino-Southern Oscillation). Pelagic species can be separated into three broad groups based on daytime temperature preferences by using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averaging clustering on a Kolmogorov-Smirnov Dmax distance matrix: 1) epipelagic species (silky and oceanic whitetip sharks), which spent >95% of their time at temperatures within 2 degrees C of sea surface temperature; 2) mesopelagic-I species (blue sharks and shortfin makos, which spent 95% of their time at temperatures from 9.7 degrees to 26.9 degrees C and from 9.4 degrees to 25.0 degrees C, respectively; and 3) mesopelagic-II species (bigeye threshers), which spent 95% of their time at temperatures from 6.7 degrees to 21.2 degrees C. Distinct thermal niche partitioning based on body size and latitude was also evident within epipelagic species.

M3 - Journal article

VL - 109

SP - 341

EP - 368

JO - Fishery Bulletin

JF - Fishery Bulletin

SN - 0090-0656

IS - 4

ER -