Porosity and density measurements of sodium acetate trihydrate for thermal energy storage

Mark Dannemand*, Monica Delgado, Ana Lazaro, Conchita Peñalosa, Carsten Gundlach, Camilla Himmelstrup Trinderup, Jakob Berg Johansen, Christoph Moser, Hermann Schranszhofer, Simon Furbo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Sodium acetate trihydrate (SAT) can be used as phase change material in latent heat storage with or without utilizing supercooling. The change of density between liquid to solid state leads to formation of cavities inside the bulk SAT during solidification. Samples of SAT which had solidified from supercooled state at ambient temperature and samples which had solidified with a minimal degree supercooled were investigated. The temperature dependent densities of liquid and the two types of solid SAT were measured with a density meter and a thermomechanical analyzer. The cavities formed inside samples of solid SAT, which had solidified after a high or minimal degree of supercooling, were investigated by X-ray scanning and computer tomography. The apparent density of solid SAT depended on whether it solidified from a supercooled state or not. A sample which solidified from a supercooled liquid contained 15% cavities and had a density of 1.26 g/cm3 at 25 °C. SAT which had solidified with minimal supercooling contained 9% cavities and had a density of 1.34 g/cm3 at 25 °C. The apparent densities of the solid SAT samples were significant lower than the value of solid SAT reported in literature of 1.45 g/cm3. The density of liquid and supercooled SAT with extra water was also determined at different temperatures.
Original languageEnglish
JournalApplied Thermal Engineering
Pages (from-to)707-714
Publication statusPublished - 2018


  • Sodium acetate trihydrate
  • Density
  • Phase change material
  • X-ray tomography
  • Thermal energy storage
  • Cavity


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