The concentrations of sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fish smoked using the traditional Chorkor, the improved Cabin and Abuesi gas fish smoker (AGFS) kilns were investigated. Fresh mackerel and barracuda were smoked using LPG gas and two firewood species and the PAH levels were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Based on consumption trends, the potential carcinogenic risks associated with consuming the products from these kilns were also assessed. The AGFS-smoked products had mean benzo(a)pyrene and PAH4 concentrations up to 0.66 and 2.52 μg/kg respectively, which were below the European Union maximum limits (2 and 12 μg/kg respectively). The benzo(a)pyrene and PAH4 concentrations were up to 3.59 and 67.99 μg/kg respectively for Cabin kiln and 15.51 and 121.60 μg/kg respectively for Chorkor kiln. Depending on the type of firewood used, the Cabin kiln produced BAP below the maximum limits when ‘Esa’ (Celtis mildbraedii) was used, while the Chorkor kiln had levels 3 to 8 times higher than the maximum limits. The PAH4 levels in the Cabin and Chorkor products were all above the maximum limits (4 and 8 times higher respectively). Based on the frequency and quantities of smoked mackerel and barracuda consumed by an average Ghanaian adult, the potential carcinogenic risks were lowest in the gas smoked mackerel and all barracuda samples (2.72 × 10−6 to 1.54 × 10−5), moderate in the Cabin smoked mackerel (2.82 × 10−5 and 5.73 × 10−5) and highest in the Chorkor smoked mackerel (7.06 × 10−5 and 1.71 × 10−4).
Konadu Asamoah, E., Nunoo, F. K. E., Addo, S., Nyarko, J. O., & Hyldig, G. (2021). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fish smoked using traditional and improved kilns: Levels and human health risk implications through dietary exposure in Ghana. Food Control, 121, . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2020.107576