Past phylogenetic studies of the monocot order Alismatales left several higher-order relationships unresolved. We addressed these uncertainties using a nearly complete genus-level sampling of whole plastid genomes (gene sets representing 83 protein-coding and ribosomal genes) from members of the core alismatid families, Tofieldiaceae and additional taxa (Araceae and other angiosperms). Parsimony and likelihood analyses inferred generally highly congruent phylogenetic relationships within the order, and several alternative likelihood partitioning schemes had little impact on patterns of clade support. All families with multiple genera were resolved as monophyletic, and we inferred strong bootstrap support for most inter- and intrafamilial relationships. The precise placement of Tofieldiaceae in the order was not well supported. Although most analyses inferred Tofieldiaceae to be the sister-group of the rest of the order, one likelihood analysis indicated a contrasting Araceae-sister arrangement. Acorus (Acorales) was not supported as a member of the order. We also investigated the molecular evolution of plastid NADH dehydrogenase, a large enzymatic complex that may play a role in photooxidative stress responses. Ancestral-state reconstructions support four convergent losses of a functional NADH dehydrogenase complex in Alismatales, including a single loss in Tofieldiaceae.