Plasmon–emitter interactions are of central importance in modern nanoplasmonics and are generally maximal at short emitter–surface separations. However, when the separation falls below 10–20 nm, the classical theory deteriorates progressively due to its neglect of quantum effects such as nonlocality, electronic spill-out, and Landau damping. Here we show how this neglect can be remedied in a unified theoretical treatment of mesoscopic electrodynamics incorporating Feibelman d-parameters. Our approach incorporates nonclassical resonance shifts and surface-enabled Landau damping—a nonlocal damping effect—which have a dramatic impact on the amplitude and spectral distribution of plasmon–emitter interactions. We consider a broad array of plasmon–emitter interactions ranging from dipolar and multipolar spontaneous emission enhancement, to plasmon-assisted energy transfer and enhancement of two-photon transitions. The formalism gives a complete account of both plasmons and plasmon–emitter interactions at the nanoscale, constituting a simple yet rigorous platform to include nonclassical effects in plasmon-enabled nanophotonic phenomena.