Planck intermediate results. XIX. An overview of the polarized thermal emission from Galactic dust

J. F. Cardoso, J. Delabrouille, K. Ganga, Y. Giraud-Héraud, M. Piat, M. Remazeilles, C. Rosset, G. Roudier, R. Stompor, A. Lähteenmäki, M. Kunz, P. Natoli, G. Polenta, N. Mandolesi, M. Ashdown, A. Curto, M. Hobson, A. Lasenby, V. Stolyarov, H.C. Chiang & 182 others R. Kneissl, J.R. Bond, P. G. Martin, M. A. Miville-Deschênes, D. Alina, A.J. Banday, J.-P. Bernard, P. Bielewicz, K. Ferrière, O. Forni, M. Giard, T.R. Jaffe, L. Montier, E. Pointecouteau, I. Ristorcelli, J.J. Bock, O. Doré, G. Helou, S.R. Hildebrandt, T.J. Pearson, G. Rocha, C. Hernández-Monteagudo, J. Borrill, R. Keskitalo, R. Rebolo, A. Chamballu, Allan Hornstrup, Michael Linden-Vørnle, Carol Anne Oxborrow, M. Tucci, F. Atrio-Barandela, L. Toffolatti, C.B. Netterfield, J.P. Rachen, D. Scott, L.P.L. Colombo, A. Benoit-Lévy, F. Poidevin, K.M. Huffenberger, M. Juvela, E. Keihänen, H. Kurki-Suonio, A. S. Suur-Uski, J. Valiviita, A. A. Fraisse, W.C. Jones, P.M. Lubin, A. Zonca, B.D. Wandelt, M. Liguori, S. Matarrese, C. Burigana, P. De Bernardis, S. Masi, A. Melchiorri, F. Nati, L. Pagano, F. Piacentini, M. Bersanelli, D. Maino, A. Mennella, M. Tomasi, A. Gregorio, P. Mazzotta, P. R. Christensen, P. Naselsky, J.A. Rubiño-Martín, X. Dupac, R. Leonardi, L. Mendes, J.A. Tauber, G. Umana, G. De Zotti, M. Frailis, S. Galeotta, M. Maris, F. Pasian, A. Zacchei, R.C. Butler, F. Cuttaia, A. De Rosa, F. Finelli, E. Franceschi, A. Gruppuso, G. Morgante, D. Paoletti, S. Ricciardi, M. Sandri, L. Terenzi, L. Valenziano, F. Villa, S. Donzelli, F.-X. Désert, A.H. Jaffe, D. Mortlock, D. Novikov, R.R. Chary, R. Paladini, B. Rusholme, N. Aghanim, M.I.R. Alves, D. Arzoumanian, J. Aumont, F. Boulanger, A. Bracco, M. Douspis, T. Ghosh, V. Guillet, G. Lagache, Fernand Pajot, J. L. Puget, K. Benabed, F.R. Bouchet, S. Colombi, E. Hivon, A. Moneti, S. Prunet, J. F. Sygnet, L. Popa, G. Efstathiou, D.L. Harrison, M. Migliaccio, D. Sutton, H. K. Eriksen, F. K. Hansen, P.B. Lilje, E.M. De Gouveia Dal Pino, A.M. Magalhães, R.B. Barreiro, J.M. Diego, J. González-Nuevo, M. López-Caniego, E. Martínez-González, P. Vielva, B.P. Crill, K.M. Górski, W.A. Holmes, C.R. Lawrence, D. Pietrobon, L.A. Wade, R.D. Davies, R. J. Davis, C. Dickinson, J.P. Leahy, B. Maffei, F. Noviello, F. Couchot, O. Perdereau, S. Plaszczynski, M. Tristram, A. Catalano, A. Coulais, E. Falgarone, J.-M. Lamarre, F. Levrier, M. Arnaud, D.J. Marshall, G.W. Pratt, C. Combet, J.F. Macías-Pérez, L. Perotto, C. Renault, B. Van Tent, T.S. Kisner, T.A. Enßlin, J. Knoche, M. Reinecke, T. Riller, J.A. Murphy, I. Novikov, G. Savini, C. Baccigalupi, L. Danese, F. Perrotta, P.A.R. Ade, D. Munshi, L.D. Spencer, R. Sudiwala, C. Armitage-Caplan, J. Dunkley, W.T. Reach, E. Battaner

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Abstract

This paper presents an overview of the polarized sky as seen by Planck HFI at 353 GHz, which is the most sensitive Planck channel for dust polarization. We construct and analyse maps of dust polarization fraction and polarization angle at 1° resolution, taking into account noise bias and possible systematic effects. The sensitivity of the Planck HFI polarization measurements allows for the first time a mapping of Galactic dust polarized emission on large scales, including low column density regions. We find that the maximum observed dust polarization fraction is high (pmax = 19.8%), in particular in some regions of moderate hydrogen column density (NH <2 × 1021 cm-2). The polarization fraction displays a large scatter at NH below a few 1021 cm-2. There is a general decrease in the dust polarization fraction with increasing column density above NH ∼ 1 × 1021 cm-2 and in particular a sharp drop above NH ∼ 1.5 × 1022 cm-2. We characterize the spatial structure of the polarization angle using the angle dispersion function. We find that the polarization angle is ordered over extended areas of several square degrees, separated by filamentary structures of high angle dispersion function. These appear as interfaces where the sky projection of the magnetic field changes abruptly without variations in the column density. The polarization fraction is found to be anti-correlated with the dispersion of polarization angles. These results suggest that, at the resolution of 1°, depolarization is due mainly to fluctuations in the magnetic field orientation along the line of sight, rather than to the loss of grain alignment in shielded regions. We also compare the polarization of thermal dust emission with that of synchrotron measured with Planck, low-frequency radio data, and Faraday rotation measurements toward extragalactic sources. These components bear resemblance along the Galactic plane and in some regions such as the Fan and North Polar Spur regions. The poor match observed in other regions shows, however, that dust, cosmic-ray electrons, and thermal electrons generally sample different parts of the line of sight.
Original languageEnglish
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
Volume576
Pages (from-to)A104
ISSN0004-6361
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Keywords

  • ISM: dust
  • ISM: general
  • ISM: magnetic fields
  • Submillimeter: ISM
  • ISM : clouds

Cite this

Cardoso, J. F., Delabrouille, J., Ganga, K., Giraud-Héraud, Y., Piat, M., Remazeilles, M., ... Battaner, E. (2015). Planck intermediate results. XIX. An overview of the polarized thermal emission from Galactic dust. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 576, A104. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201424082
Cardoso, J. F. ; Delabrouille, J. ; Ganga, K. ; Giraud-Héraud, Y. ; Piat, M. ; Remazeilles, M. ; Rosset, C. ; Roudier, G. ; Stompor, R. ; Lähteenmäki, A. ; Kunz, M. ; Natoli, P. ; Polenta, G. ; Mandolesi, N. ; Ashdown, M. ; Curto, A. ; Hobson, M. ; Lasenby, A. ; Stolyarov, V. ; Chiang, H.C. ; Kneissl, R. ; Bond, J.R. ; Martin, P. G. ; Miville-Deschênes, M. A. ; Alina, D. ; Banday, A.J. ; Bernard, J.-P. ; Bielewicz, P. ; Ferrière, K. ; Forni, O. ; Giard, M. ; Jaffe, T.R. ; Montier, L. ; Pointecouteau, E. ; Ristorcelli, I. ; Bock, J.J. ; Doré, O. ; Helou, G. ; Hildebrandt, S.R. ; Pearson, T.J. ; Rocha, G. ; Hernández-Monteagudo, C. ; Borrill, J. ; Keskitalo, R. ; Rebolo, R. ; Chamballu, A. ; Hornstrup, Allan ; Linden-Vørnle, Michael ; Oxborrow, Carol Anne ; Tucci, M. ; Atrio-Barandela, F. ; Toffolatti, L. ; Netterfield, C.B. ; Rachen, J.P. ; Scott, D. ; Colombo, L.P.L. ; Benoit-Lévy, A. ; Poidevin, F. ; Huffenberger, K.M. ; Juvela, M. ; Keihänen, E. ; Kurki-Suonio, H. ; Suur-Uski, A. S. ; Valiviita, J. ; Fraisse, A. A. ; Jones, W.C. ; Lubin, P.M. ; Zonca, A. ; Wandelt, B.D. ; Liguori, M. ; Matarrese, S. ; Burigana, C. ; De Bernardis, P. ; Masi, S. ; Melchiorri, A. ; Nati, F. ; Pagano, L. ; Piacentini, F. ; Bersanelli, M. ; Maino, D. ; Mennella, A. ; Tomasi, M. ; Gregorio, A. ; Mazzotta, P. ; Christensen, P. R. ; Naselsky, P. ; Rubiño-Martín, J.A. ; Dupac, X. ; Leonardi, R. ; Mendes, L. ; Tauber, J.A. ; Umana, G. ; De Zotti, G. ; Frailis, M. ; Galeotta, S. ; Maris, M. ; Pasian, F. ; Zacchei, A. ; Butler, R.C. ; Cuttaia, F. ; De Rosa, A. ; Finelli, F. ; Franceschi, E. ; Gruppuso, A. ; Morgante, G. ; Paoletti, D. ; Ricciardi, S. ; Sandri, M. ; Terenzi, L. ; Valenziano, L. ; Villa, F. ; Donzelli, S. ; Désert, F.-X. ; Jaffe, A.H. ; Mortlock, D. ; Novikov, D. ; Chary, R.R. ; Paladini, R. ; Rusholme, B. ; Aghanim, N. ; Alves, M.I.R. ; Arzoumanian, D. ; Aumont, J. ; Boulanger, F. ; Bracco, A. ; Douspis, M. ; Ghosh, T. ; Guillet, V. ; Lagache, G. ; Pajot, Fernand ; Puget, J. L. ; Benabed, K. ; Bouchet, F.R. ; Colombi, S. ; Hivon, E. ; Moneti, A. ; Prunet, S. ; Sygnet, J. F. ; Popa, L. ; Efstathiou, G. ; Harrison, D.L. ; Migliaccio, M. ; Sutton, D. ; Eriksen, H. K. ; Hansen, F. K. ; Lilje, P.B. ; De Gouveia Dal Pino, E.M. ; Magalhães, A.M. ; Barreiro, R.B. ; Diego, J.M. ; González-Nuevo, J. ; López-Caniego, M. ; Martínez-González, E. ; Vielva, P. ; Crill, B.P. ; Górski, K.M. ; Holmes, W.A. ; Lawrence, C.R. ; Pietrobon, D. ; Wade, L.A. ; Davies, R.D. ; Davis, R. J. ; Dickinson, C. ; Leahy, J.P. ; Maffei, B. ; Noviello, F. ; Couchot, F. ; Perdereau, O. ; Plaszczynski, S. ; Tristram, M. ; Catalano, A. ; Coulais, A. ; Falgarone, E. ; Lamarre, J.-M. ; Levrier, F. ; Arnaud, M. ; Marshall, D.J. ; Pratt, G.W. ; Combet, C. ; Macías-Pérez, J.F. ; Perotto, L. ; Renault, C. ; Van Tent, B. ; Kisner, T.S. ; Enßlin, T.A. ; Knoche, J. ; Reinecke, M. ; Riller, T. ; Murphy, J.A. ; Novikov, I. ; Savini, G. ; Baccigalupi, C. ; Danese, L. ; Perrotta, F. ; Ade, P.A.R. ; Munshi, D. ; Spencer, L.D. ; Sudiwala, R. ; Armitage-Caplan, C. ; Dunkley, J. ; Reach, W.T. ; Battaner, E. / Planck intermediate results. XIX. An overview of the polarized thermal emission from Galactic dust. In: Astronomy and Astrophysics. 2015 ; Vol. 576. pp. A104.
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title = "Planck intermediate results. XIX. An overview of the polarized thermal emission from Galactic dust",
abstract = "This paper presents an overview of the polarized sky as seen by Planck HFI at 353 GHz, which is the most sensitive Planck channel for dust polarization. We construct and analyse maps of dust polarization fraction and polarization angle at 1° resolution, taking into account noise bias and possible systematic effects. The sensitivity of the Planck HFI polarization measurements allows for the first time a mapping of Galactic dust polarized emission on large scales, including low column density regions. We find that the maximum observed dust polarization fraction is high (pmax = 19.8{\%}), in particular in some regions of moderate hydrogen column density (NH <2 × 1021 cm-2). The polarization fraction displays a large scatter at NH below a few 1021 cm-2. There is a general decrease in the dust polarization fraction with increasing column density above NH ∼ 1 × 1021 cm-2 and in particular a sharp drop above NH ∼ 1.5 × 1022 cm-2. We characterize the spatial structure of the polarization angle using the angle dispersion function. We find that the polarization angle is ordered over extended areas of several square degrees, separated by filamentary structures of high angle dispersion function. These appear as interfaces where the sky projection of the magnetic field changes abruptly without variations in the column density. The polarization fraction is found to be anti-correlated with the dispersion of polarization angles. These results suggest that, at the resolution of 1°, depolarization is due mainly to fluctuations in the magnetic field orientation along the line of sight, rather than to the loss of grain alignment in shielded regions. We also compare the polarization of thermal dust emission with that of synchrotron measured with Planck, low-frequency radio data, and Faraday rotation measurements toward extragalactic sources. These components bear resemblance along the Galactic plane and in some regions such as the Fan and North Polar Spur regions. The poor match observed in other regions shows, however, that dust, cosmic-ray electrons, and thermal electrons generally sample different parts of the line of sight.",
keywords = "ISM: dust, ISM: general, ISM: magnetic fields, Submillimeter: ISM, ISM : clouds",
author = "Cardoso, {J. F.} and J. Delabrouille and K. Ganga and Y. Giraud-H{\'e}raud and M. Piat and M. Remazeilles and C. Rosset and G. Roudier and R. Stompor and A. L{\"a}hteenm{\"a}ki and M. Kunz and P. Natoli and G. Polenta and N. Mandolesi and M. Ashdown and A. Curto and M. Hobson and A. Lasenby and V. Stolyarov and H.C. Chiang and R. Kneissl and J.R. Bond and Martin, {P. G.} and Miville-Desch{\^e}nes, {M. A.} and D. Alina and A.J. Banday and J.-P. Bernard and P. Bielewicz and K. Ferri{\`e}re and O. Forni and M. Giard and T.R. Jaffe and L. Montier and E. Pointecouteau and I. Ristorcelli and J.J. Bock and O. Dor{\'e} and G. Helou and S.R. Hildebrandt and T.J. Pearson and G. Rocha and C. Hern{\'a}ndez-Monteagudo and J. Borrill and R. Keskitalo and R. Rebolo and A. Chamballu and Allan Hornstrup and Michael Linden-V{\o}rnle and Oxborrow, {Carol Anne} and M. Tucci and F. Atrio-Barandela and L. Toffolatti and C.B. Netterfield and J.P. Rachen and D. Scott and L.P.L. Colombo and A. Benoit-L{\'e}vy and F. Poidevin and K.M. Huffenberger and M. Juvela and E. Keih{\"a}nen and H. Kurki-Suonio and Suur-Uski, {A. S.} and J. Valiviita and Fraisse, {A. A.} and W.C. Jones and P.M. Lubin and A. Zonca and B.D. Wandelt and M. Liguori and S. Matarrese and C. Burigana and {De Bernardis}, P. and S. Masi and A. Melchiorri and F. Nati and L. Pagano and F. Piacentini and M. Bersanelli and D. Maino and A. Mennella and M. Tomasi and A. Gregorio and P. Mazzotta and Christensen, {P. R.} and P. Naselsky and J.A. Rubi{\~n}o-Mart{\'i}n and X. Dupac and R. Leonardi and L. Mendes and J.A. Tauber and G. Umana and {De Zotti}, G. and M. Frailis and S. Galeotta and M. Maris and F. Pasian and A. Zacchei and R.C. Butler and F. Cuttaia and {De Rosa}, A. and F. Finelli and E. Franceschi and A. Gruppuso and G. Morgante and D. Paoletti and S. Ricciardi and M. Sandri and L. Terenzi and L. Valenziano and F. Villa and S. Donzelli and F.-X. D{\'e}sert and A.H. Jaffe and D. Mortlock and D. Novikov and R.R. Chary and R. Paladini and B. Rusholme and N. Aghanim and M.I.R. Alves and D. Arzoumanian and J. Aumont and F. Boulanger and A. Bracco and M. Douspis and T. Ghosh and V. Guillet and G. Lagache and Fernand Pajot and Puget, {J. L.} and K. Benabed and F.R. Bouchet and S. Colombi and E. Hivon and A. Moneti and S. Prunet and Sygnet, {J. F.} and L. Popa and G. Efstathiou and D.L. Harrison and M. Migliaccio and D. Sutton and Eriksen, {H. K.} and Hansen, {F. K.} and P.B. Lilje and {De Gouveia Dal Pino}, E.M. and A.M. Magalh{\~a}es and R.B. Barreiro and J.M. Diego and J. Gonz{\'a}lez-Nuevo and M. L{\'o}pez-Caniego and E. Mart{\'i}nez-Gonz{\'a}lez and P. Vielva and B.P. Crill and K.M. G{\'o}rski and W.A. Holmes and C.R. Lawrence and D. Pietrobon and L.A. Wade and R.D. Davies and Davis, {R. J.} and C. Dickinson and J.P. Leahy and B. Maffei and F. Noviello and F. Couchot and O. Perdereau and S. Plaszczynski and M. Tristram and A. Catalano and A. Coulais and E. Falgarone and J.-M. Lamarre and F. Levrier and M. Arnaud and D.J. Marshall and G.W. Pratt and C. Combet and J.F. Mac{\'i}as-P{\'e}rez and L. Perotto and C. Renault and {Van Tent}, B. and T.S. Kisner and T.A. En{\ss}lin and J. Knoche and M. Reinecke and T. Riller and J.A. Murphy and I. Novikov and G. Savini and C. Baccigalupi and L. Danese and F. Perrotta and P.A.R. Ade and D. Munshi and L.D. Spencer and R. Sudiwala and C. Armitage-Caplan and J. Dunkley and W.T. Reach and E. Battaner",
year = "2015",
doi = "10.1051/0004-6361/201424082",
language = "English",
volume = "576",
pages = "A104",
journal = "Astronomy & Astrophysics",
issn = "0004-6361",
publisher = "E D P Sciences",

}

Cardoso, JF, Delabrouille, J, Ganga, K, Giraud-Héraud, Y, Piat, M, Remazeilles, M, Rosset, C, Roudier, G, Stompor, R, Lähteenmäki, A, Kunz, M, Natoli, P, Polenta, G, Mandolesi, N, Ashdown, M, Curto, A, Hobson, M, Lasenby, A, Stolyarov, V, Chiang, HC, Kneissl, R, Bond, JR, Martin, PG, Miville-Deschênes, MA, Alina, D, Banday, AJ, Bernard, J-P, Bielewicz, P, Ferrière, K, Forni, O, Giard, M, Jaffe, TR, Montier, L, Pointecouteau, E, Ristorcelli, I, Bock, JJ, Doré, O, Helou, G, Hildebrandt, SR, Pearson, TJ, Rocha, G, Hernández-Monteagudo, C, Borrill, J, Keskitalo, R, Rebolo, R, Chamballu, A, Hornstrup, A, Linden-Vørnle, M, Oxborrow, CA, Tucci, M, Atrio-Barandela, F, Toffolatti, L, Netterfield, CB, Rachen, JP, Scott, D, Colombo, LPL, Benoit-Lévy, A, Poidevin, F, Huffenberger, KM, Juvela, M, Keihänen, E, Kurki-Suonio, H, Suur-Uski, AS, Valiviita, J, Fraisse, AA, Jones, WC, Lubin, PM, Zonca, A, Wandelt, BD, Liguori, M, Matarrese, S, Burigana, C, De Bernardis, P, Masi, S, Melchiorri, A, Nati, F, Pagano, L, Piacentini, F, Bersanelli, M, Maino, D, Mennella, A, Tomasi, M, Gregorio, A, Mazzotta, P, Christensen, PR, Naselsky, P, Rubiño-Martín, JA, Dupac, X, Leonardi, R, Mendes, L, Tauber, JA, Umana, G, De Zotti, G, Frailis, M, Galeotta, S, Maris, M, Pasian, F, Zacchei, A, Butler, RC, Cuttaia, F, De Rosa, A, Finelli, F, Franceschi, E, Gruppuso, A, Morgante, G, Paoletti, D, Ricciardi, S, Sandri, M, Terenzi, L, Valenziano, L, Villa, F, Donzelli, S, Désert, F-X, Jaffe, AH, Mortlock, D, Novikov, D, Chary, RR, Paladini, R, Rusholme, B, Aghanim, N, Alves, MIR, Arzoumanian, D, Aumont, J, Boulanger, F, Bracco, A, Douspis, M, Ghosh, T, Guillet, V, Lagache, G, Pajot, F, Puget, JL, Benabed, K, Bouchet, FR, Colombi, S, Hivon, E, Moneti, A, Prunet, S, Sygnet, JF, Popa, L, Efstathiou, G, Harrison, DL, Migliaccio, M, Sutton, D, Eriksen, HK, Hansen, FK, Lilje, PB, De Gouveia Dal Pino, EM, Magalhães, AM, Barreiro, RB, Diego, JM, González-Nuevo, J, López-Caniego, M, Martínez-González, E, Vielva, P, Crill, BP, Górski, KM, Holmes, WA, Lawrence, CR, Pietrobon, D, Wade, LA, Davies, RD, Davis, RJ, Dickinson, C, Leahy, JP, Maffei, B, Noviello, F, Couchot, F, Perdereau, O, Plaszczynski, S, Tristram, M, Catalano, A, Coulais, A, Falgarone, E, Lamarre, J-M, Levrier, F, Arnaud, M, Marshall, DJ, Pratt, GW, Combet, C, Macías-Pérez, JF, Perotto, L, Renault, C, Van Tent, B, Kisner, TS, Enßlin, TA, Knoche, J, Reinecke, M, Riller, T, Murphy, JA, Novikov, I, Savini, G, Baccigalupi, C, Danese, L, Perrotta, F, Ade, PAR, Munshi, D, Spencer, LD, Sudiwala, R, Armitage-Caplan, C, Dunkley, J, Reach, WT & Battaner, E 2015, 'Planck intermediate results. XIX. An overview of the polarized thermal emission from Galactic dust', Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 576, pp. A104. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201424082

Planck intermediate results. XIX. An overview of the polarized thermal emission from Galactic dust. / Cardoso, J. F.; Delabrouille, J.; Ganga, K.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Piat, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Stompor, R.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Kunz, M.; Natoli, P.; Polenta, G.; Mandolesi, N.; Ashdown, M.; Curto, A.; Hobson, M.; Lasenby, A.; Stolyarov, V.; Chiang, H.C.; Kneissl, R.; Bond, J.R.; Martin, P. G.; Miville-Deschênes, M. A.; Alina, D.; Banday, A.J.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bielewicz, P.; Ferrière, K.; Forni, O.; Giard, M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Montier, L.; Pointecouteau, E.; Ristorcelli, I.; Bock, J.J.; Doré, O.; Helou, G.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Pearson, T.J.; Rocha, G.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Borrill, J.; Keskitalo, R.; Rebolo, R.; Chamballu, A.; Hornstrup, Allan; Linden-Vørnle, Michael; Oxborrow, Carol Anne; Tucci, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Toffolatti, L.; Netterfield, C.B.; Rachen, J.P.; Scott, D.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Poidevin, F.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Suur-Uski, A. S.; Valiviita, J.; Fraisse, A. A.; Jones, W.C.; Lubin, P.M.; Zonca, A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Liguori, M.; Matarrese, S.; Burigana, C.; De Bernardis, P.; Masi, S.; Melchiorri, A.; Nati, F.; Pagano, L.; Piacentini, F.; Bersanelli, M.; Maino, D.; Mennella, A.; Tomasi, M.; Gregorio, A.; Mazzotta, P.; Christensen, P. R.; Naselsky, P.; Rubiño-Martín, J.A.; Dupac, X.; Leonardi, R.; Mendes, L.; Tauber, J.A.; Umana, G.; De Zotti, G.; Frailis, M.; Galeotta, S.; Maris, M.; Pasian, F.; Zacchei, A.; Butler, R.C.; Cuttaia, F.; De Rosa, A.; Finelli, F.; Franceschi, E.; Gruppuso, A.; Morgante, G.; Paoletti, D.; Ricciardi, S.; Sandri, M.; Terenzi, L.; Valenziano, L.; Villa, F.; Donzelli, S.; Désert, F.-X.; Jaffe, A.H.; Mortlock, D.; Novikov, D.; Chary, R.R.; Paladini, R.; Rusholme, B.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M.I.R.; Arzoumanian, D.; Aumont, J.; Boulanger, F.; Bracco, A.; Douspis, M.; Ghosh, T.; Guillet, V.; Lagache, G.; Pajot, Fernand; Puget, J. L.; Benabed, K.; Bouchet, F.R.; Colombi, S.; Hivon, E.; Moneti, A.; Prunet, S.; Sygnet, J. F.; Popa, L.; Efstathiou, G.; Harrison, D.L.; Migliaccio, M.; Sutton, D.; Eriksen, H. K.; Hansen, F. K.; Lilje, P.B.; De Gouveia Dal Pino, E.M.; Magalhães, A.M.; Barreiro, R.B.; Diego, J.M.; González-Nuevo, J.; López-Caniego, M.; Martínez-González, E.; Vielva, P.; Crill, B.P.; Górski, K.M.; Holmes, W.A.; Lawrence, C.R.; Pietrobon, D.; Wade, L.A.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R. J.; Dickinson, C.; Leahy, J.P.; Maffei, B.; Noviello, F.; Couchot, F.; Perdereau, O.; Plaszczynski, S.; Tristram, M.; Catalano, A.; Coulais, A.; Falgarone, E.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Levrier, F.; Arnaud, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Pratt, G.W.; Combet, C.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Perotto, L.; Renault, C.; Van Tent, B.; Kisner, T.S.; Enßlin, T.A.; Knoche, J.; Reinecke, M.; Riller, T.; Murphy, J.A.; Novikov, I.; Savini, G.; Baccigalupi, C.; Danese, L.; Perrotta, F.; Ade, P.A.R.; Munshi, D.; Spencer, L.D.; Sudiwala, R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Dunkley, J.; Reach, W.T.; Battaner, E.

In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 576, 2015, p. A104.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Planck intermediate results. XIX. An overview of the polarized thermal emission from Galactic dust

AU - Cardoso, J. F.

AU - Delabrouille, J.

AU - Ganga, K.

AU - Giraud-Héraud, Y.

AU - Piat, M.

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PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - This paper presents an overview of the polarized sky as seen by Planck HFI at 353 GHz, which is the most sensitive Planck channel for dust polarization. We construct and analyse maps of dust polarization fraction and polarization angle at 1° resolution, taking into account noise bias and possible systematic effects. The sensitivity of the Planck HFI polarization measurements allows for the first time a mapping of Galactic dust polarized emission on large scales, including low column density regions. We find that the maximum observed dust polarization fraction is high (pmax = 19.8%), in particular in some regions of moderate hydrogen column density (NH <2 × 1021 cm-2). The polarization fraction displays a large scatter at NH below a few 1021 cm-2. There is a general decrease in the dust polarization fraction with increasing column density above NH ∼ 1 × 1021 cm-2 and in particular a sharp drop above NH ∼ 1.5 × 1022 cm-2. We characterize the spatial structure of the polarization angle using the angle dispersion function. We find that the polarization angle is ordered over extended areas of several square degrees, separated by filamentary structures of high angle dispersion function. These appear as interfaces where the sky projection of the magnetic field changes abruptly without variations in the column density. The polarization fraction is found to be anti-correlated with the dispersion of polarization angles. These results suggest that, at the resolution of 1°, depolarization is due mainly to fluctuations in the magnetic field orientation along the line of sight, rather than to the loss of grain alignment in shielded regions. We also compare the polarization of thermal dust emission with that of synchrotron measured with Planck, low-frequency radio data, and Faraday rotation measurements toward extragalactic sources. These components bear resemblance along the Galactic plane and in some regions such as the Fan and North Polar Spur regions. The poor match observed in other regions shows, however, that dust, cosmic-ray electrons, and thermal electrons generally sample different parts of the line of sight.

AB - This paper presents an overview of the polarized sky as seen by Planck HFI at 353 GHz, which is the most sensitive Planck channel for dust polarization. We construct and analyse maps of dust polarization fraction and polarization angle at 1° resolution, taking into account noise bias and possible systematic effects. The sensitivity of the Planck HFI polarization measurements allows for the first time a mapping of Galactic dust polarized emission on large scales, including low column density regions. We find that the maximum observed dust polarization fraction is high (pmax = 19.8%), in particular in some regions of moderate hydrogen column density (NH <2 × 1021 cm-2). The polarization fraction displays a large scatter at NH below a few 1021 cm-2. There is a general decrease in the dust polarization fraction with increasing column density above NH ∼ 1 × 1021 cm-2 and in particular a sharp drop above NH ∼ 1.5 × 1022 cm-2. We characterize the spatial structure of the polarization angle using the angle dispersion function. We find that the polarization angle is ordered over extended areas of several square degrees, separated by filamentary structures of high angle dispersion function. These appear as interfaces where the sky projection of the magnetic field changes abruptly without variations in the column density. The polarization fraction is found to be anti-correlated with the dispersion of polarization angles. These results suggest that, at the resolution of 1°, depolarization is due mainly to fluctuations in the magnetic field orientation along the line of sight, rather than to the loss of grain alignment in shielded regions. We also compare the polarization of thermal dust emission with that of synchrotron measured with Planck, low-frequency radio data, and Faraday rotation measurements toward extragalactic sources. These components bear resemblance along the Galactic plane and in some regions such as the Fan and North Polar Spur regions. The poor match observed in other regions shows, however, that dust, cosmic-ray electrons, and thermal electrons generally sample different parts of the line of sight.

KW - ISM: dust

KW - ISM: general

KW - ISM: magnetic fields

KW - Submillimeter: ISM

KW - ISM : clouds

U2 - 10.1051/0004-6361/201424082

DO - 10.1051/0004-6361/201424082

M3 - Journal article

VL - 576

SP - A104

JO - Astronomy & Astrophysics

JF - Astronomy & Astrophysics

SN - 0004-6361

ER -