Planck early results. IX. XMM-Newton follow-up for validation of Planck cluster candidates

T. Poutanen, P. Natoli, G. Polenta, J.G. Bartlett, M. Bucher, J.-F. Cardoso, A. Catalano, J. Delabrouille, S. Fromenteau, K. Ganga, Y. Giraud-Héraud, M. Le Jeune, G. Patanchon, M. Piat, C. Rosset, G.F. Smoot, M. Ashdown, M.L. Brown, P. Carvalho, G. ChonM. Hobson, A. Lasenby, V. Stolyarov, R. Bhatia, R. Kneissl, J.R. Bond, M.-A. Miville-Deschênes, A.J. Banday, J.-P. Bernard, O. Forni, M. Giard, L. Montier, E. Pointecouteau, I. Ristorcelli, J.J. Bock, O. Doré, S.R. Hildebrandt, G. Prézeau, G. Rocha, M.D. Seiffert, H. Dahle, A. Da Silva, A. Challinor, J.-B. Melin, R. Piffaretti, J.-L. Starck, D. Yvon, Michael Linden-Vørnle, Hans Ulrik Nørgaard-Nielsen, L. Toffolatti, F. Marleau, C.B. Netterfield, D. Scott, E. Pierpaoli, A. Liddle, M. Juvela, E. Keihänen, R. Keskitalo, H. Kurki-Suonio, T. Poutanen, L. Cayón, G.F. Smoot, L. Knox, R. Leonardi, P.M. Lubin, A. Zonca, B.D. Wandelt, S. Matarrese, P. De Bernardis, S. Masi, A. Melchiorri, F. Piacentini, M. Bersanelli, D. Maino, A. Mennella, M. Tomasi, A. Gregorio, P. Natoli, A. Balbi, P. Cabella, G. De Gasperis, P. Mazzotta, N. Vittorio, P.R. Christensen, P. Naselsky, I. Flores-Cacho, R.T. Génova-Santos, R. Rebolo, J.A. Rubiño-Martín, R. Kneissl, R. González-Riestra, X. Dupac, R. Leonardi, L. Mendes, G. Giardino, R.J. Laureijs, R. Leonardi, J.A. Tauber, H. Kurki-Suonio, T. Poutanen, A. Bonaldi, G. De Zotti, S. Colafrancesco, G. Polenta, M. Frailis, S. Galeotta, M. Maris, A. Mennella, F. Pasian, A. Zacchei, C. Burigana, F. Cuttaia, A. De Rosa, F. Finelli, E. Franceschi, A. Gruppuso, N. Mandolesi, G. Morgante, P. Natoli, S. Ricciardi, M. Sandri, L. Terenzi, L. Valenziano, F. Villa, M. Bersanelli, S. Donzelli, D. Maino, M. Tomasi, F. Stivoli, F.-X. Désert, A. Chamballu, D.L. Clements, A.H. Jaffe, D. Mortlock, D. Novikov, K. Ganga, B. Rusholme, A. Benoît, N. Aghanim, J. Aumont, M. Douspis, S. Fromenteau, G. Lagache, M.-A. Miville-Deschênes, F. Noviello, F. Pajot, N. Ponthieu, J.-L. Puget, J.-P. Torre, L. Vibert, K. Benabed, F.R. Bouchet, J.-F. Cardoso, S. Colombi, J.-M. Delouis, E. Hivon, A. Moneti, S. Prunet, J.-F. Sygnet, B.D. Wandelt, L.-Y. Chiang, A. Challinor, G. Efstathiou, S. Gratton, D. Harrison, D. Munshi, H. Dahle, S. Donzelli, I. Flores-Cacho, R.T. Génova-Santos, S.R. Hildebrandt, R.J. Hoyland, R. Rebolo, J.A. Rubiño-Martín, R.B. Barreiro, J.M. Diego, D. Herranz, M. López-Caniego, E. Martínez-González, P. Vielva, J.G. Bartlett, J.J. Bock, B.P. Crill, O. Doré, K.M. Górski, W.A. Holmes, R. Keskitalo, C.R. Lawrence, S. Mitra, G. Prézeau, G. Rocha, M.D. Seiffert, B. Maffei, M. Ashdown, M.L. Brown, A. Challinor, S. Gratton, D. Harrison, A. Lasenby, A. Catalano, A. Coulais, J.-M. Lamarre, M. Arnaud, R. Piffaretti, G.W. Pratt, J.-L. Starck, J.-F. Cardoso, S.R. Hildebrandt, G. Hurier, J.F. MacÍas-Pérez, L. Perotto, C. Renault, D. Santos, F. Couchot, S. Henrot-Versillé, O. Perdereau, S. Plaszczynski, M. Tristram, J. Borrill, C.M. Cantalupo, T.S. Kisner, G.F. Smoot, A.J. Banday, M. Bartelmann, E. Churazov, K. Dolag, U. Dörl, T.A. Enßlin, C. Hernández-Monteagudo, W. Hovest, F. Matthai, M. Reinecke, T. Riller, R. Sunyaev, S.D.M. White, G. Chon, J. Tuovinen, A. Murphy, P.R. Christensen, P. Naselsky, I. Novikov, B.P. Crill, C. Baccigalupi, L. Danese, G. De Zotti, J. González-Nuevo, S. Leach, F. Perrotta, R. Mann, D. Munshi, E. Churazov, R. Sunyaev, J. Borrill, S. Osborne, E. Saar, P. Heinämäki, M. Bartelmann, B.M. Schaefer, A.J. Banday, J.-P. Bernard, O. Forni, M. Giard, L. Montier, E. Pointecouteau, I. Ristorcelli, E. Battaner, K.M. Huffenberger, K.M. Górski

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Abstract

We present the XMM-Newton follow-up for confirmation of Planck cluster candidates. Twenty-five candidates have been observed to date using snapshot (∼10 ks) exposures, ten as part of a pilot programme to sample a low range of signal-to-noise ratios (4 <S/N <6), and a further 15 in a programme to observe a sample of S/N > 5 candidates. The sensitivity and spatial resolution of XMM-Newton allows unambiguous discrimination between clusters and false candidates. The 4 false candidates have S/N = 4.1. A total of 21 candidates are confirmed as extended X-ray sources. Seventeen are single clusters, the majority of which are found to have highly irregular and disturbed morphologies (about ∼70%). The remaining four sources are multiple systems, including the unexpected discovery of a supercluster at z = 0.45. For 20 sources we are able to derive a redshift estimate from the X-ray Fe K line (albeit of variable quality). The new clusters span the redshift range 0.09 ≲ z ≲ 0.54, with a median redshift of z ∼ 0.37. A first determination is made of their X-ray properties including the characteristic size, which is used to improve the estimate of the SZ Compton parameter, Y 500. The follow-up validation programme has helped to optimise the Planck candidate selection process. It has also provided a preview of the X-ray properties of these newly-discovered clusters, allowing comparison with their SZ properties, and to the X-ray and SZ properties of known clusters observed in the Planck survey. Our results suggest that Planck may have started to reveal a non-negligible population of massive dynamically perturbed objects that is under-represented in X-ray surveys. However, despite their particular properties, these new clusters appear to follow the Y500-YX relation established for X-ray selected objects, where YX is the product of the gas mass and temperature. © ESO 2011.
Original languageEnglish
JournalAstronomy & Astrophysics
Volume536
Pages (from-to)A9
ISSN0004-6361
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011

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Poutanen, T., Natoli, P., Polenta, G., Bartlett, J. G., Bucher, M., Cardoso, J-F., Catalano, A., Delabrouille, J., Fromenteau, S., Ganga, K., Giraud-Héraud, Y., Le Jeune, M., Patanchon, G., Piat, M., Rosset, C., Smoot, G. F., Ashdown, M., Brown, M. L., Carvalho, P., ... Górski, K. M. (2011). Planck early results. IX. XMM-Newton follow-up for validation of Planck cluster candidates. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 536, A9. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201116460