Planck early results. II. The thermal performance of Planck

T. Poutanen, P. Natoli, G. Polenta, E. Bréelle, M. Bucher, J.-F. Cardoso, A. Catalano, J. Delabrouille, K. Ganga, Y. Giraud-Héraud, G. Patanchon, M. Piat, C. Rosset, G.F. Smoot, R. Stompor, M. Ashdown, M. Hobson, A. Lasenby, V. Stolyarov, R. BhatiaR. Kneissl, J.R. Bond, M.-A. Miville-Deschênes, T. MacIaszek, A.J. Banday, J.-P. Bernard, O. Forni, M. Giard, C. Leroy, L. Montier, E. Pointecouteau, I. Ristorcelli, J.J. Bock, O. Doré, G. Helou, S.R. Hildebrandt, G. Prézeau, G. Rocha, M.D. Seiffert, P.B. Lilje, A. Challinor, P. Shellard, J.-L. Starck, D. Yvon, Allan Hornstrup, L. Toffolatti, C.B. Netterfield, D. Scott, M. Juvela, E. Keihänen, R. Keskitalo, H. Kurki-Suonio, T. Poutanen, C. Chiang, W.C. Jones, L. Cayón, G.F. Smoot, L. Knox, R. Leonardi, P.M. Lubin, P.R. Meinhold, A. Zonca, B.D. Wandelt, S. Matarrese, P. De Bernardis, S. Masi, A. Melchiorri, F. Piacentini, M. Bersanelli, D. Maino, A. Mennella, M. Tomasi, A. Gregorio, P. Natoli, A. Balbi, P. Cabella, G. De Gasperis, P. Mazzotta, N. Vittorio, P.R. Christensen, P. Naselsky, R. Rebolo, J.A. Rubiño-Martín, R. Kneissl, X. Dupac, R. Leonardi, L. Mendes, M. Baker, S. Foley, C. Watson, C. Damasio, G. Giardino, R.J. Laureijs, R. Leonardi, J.A. Tauber, H. Kurki-Suonio, T. Poutanen, A. Bonaldi, G. Polenta, M. Frailis, S. Galeotta, M. Maris, A. Mennella, F. Pasian, A. Zacchei, C. Burigana, R.C. Butler, F. Cuttaia, A. De Rosa, F. Finelli, E. Franceschi, A. Gruppuso, N. Mandolesi, G. Morgante, P. Natoli, S. Ricciardi, M. Sandri, L. Terenzi, L. Valenziano, F. Villa, M. Bersanelli, B. Cappellini, S. Donzelli, D. Maino, M. Tomasi, F. Stivoli, G. Guyot, F.-X. Désert, N. Morisset, A. Chamballu, D.L. Clements, A.H. Jaffe, D. Mortlock, D. Novikov, K. Ganga, P. McGehee, B. Rusholme, A. Benoît, P. Camus, N. Aghanim, J. Aumont, J. Charra, M. Charra, M. Douspis, J.-J. Fourmond, G. Lagache, P. Lami, C. Leroy, M.-A. Miville-Deschênes, F. Pajot, N. Ponthieu, J.-L. Puget, J.-P. Torre, L. Vibert, K. Benabed, F.R. Bouchet, J.-F. Cardoso, S. Colombi, J.-M. Delouis, E. Hivon, A. Moneti, S. Prunet, J.-F. Sygnet, B.D. Wandelt, P. Fosalba, L.-Y. Chiang, A. Challinor, G. Efstathiou, S. Gratton, D. Harrison, D. Munshi, S. Donzelli, H.K. Eriksen, P.B. Lilje, S.R. Hildebrandt, R.J. Hoyland, R. Rebolo, J.A. Rubiño-Martín, R.B. Barreiro, D. Herranz, M. López-Caniego, E. Martínez-González, P. Vielva, P. Platania, P. Bhandari, J.J. Bock, J. Borders, B. Bowman, J.P. Chambelland, B.P. Crill, O. Doré, K.M. Górski, W.A. Holmes, U. Israelsson, R. Keskitalo, C.R. Lawrence, R. Lee, J. Mora, A. Nash, I.J. O'Dwyer, D. Pearson, G. Prézeau, M. Prina, G. Rocha, M.D. Seiffert, L.A. Wade, P. Wilson, B. Zhang, R.D. Davies, R.J. Davis, B. Maffei, A. Wilkinson, M. Ashdown, A. Challinor, S. Gratton, D. Harrison, A. Lasenby, C.J. MacTavish, A. Catalano, A. Coulais, J.-M. Lamarre, M. Arnaud, J.-L. Starck, J.-F. Cardoso, S.R. Hildebrandt, J.F. MacÍas-Pérez, F. Melot, L. Perotto, C. Renault, D. Santos, P. Stassi, F. Couchot, C. Filliard, S. Henrot-Versillé, A. Lavabre, O. Perdereau, S. Plaszczynski, M. Tristram, J. Borrill, C.M. Cantalupo, T.S. Kisner, G.F. Smoot, A.J. Banday, K. Dolag, U. Dörl, T.A. Enßlin, C. Hernández-Monteagudo, W. Hovest, F. Matthai, J.P. Rachen, M. Reinecke, T. Riller, S.D.M. White, J. Tuovinen, A. Murphy, P.R. Christensen, P. Naselsky, I. Novikov, B.P. Crill, G. Savini, T. Bradshaw, M. Crook, C. Baccigalupi, L. Danese, J. González-Nuevo, S. Leach, F. Perrotta, R. Mann, P.A.R. Ade, D. Munshi, R. Sudiwala, J. Borrill, S. Osborne, B. Collaudin, E. Gavila, B.M. Schaefer, A.J. Banday, J.-P. Bernard, O. Forni, M. Giard, C. Leroy, L. Montier, E. Pointecouteau, I. Ristorcelli, E. Battaner, K.M. Huffenberger, K.M. Górski

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Abstract

The performance of the Planck instruments in space is enabled by their low operating temperatures, 20 K for LFI and 0.1 K for HFI, achieved through a combination of passive radiative cooling and three active mechanical coolers. The scientific requirement for very broad frequency coverage led to two detector technologies with widely different temperature and cooling needs. Active coolers could satisfy these needs; a helium cryostat, as used by previous cryogenic space missions (IRAS, COBE, ISO, Spitzer, AKARI), could not. Radiative cooling is provided by three V-groove radiators and a large telescope baffle. The active coolers are a hydrogen sorption cooler (
Original languageEnglish
JournalAstronomy & Astrophysics
Volume536
Pages (from-to)A2
ISSN0004-6361
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011

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