Planck 2013 results. IV. Low Frequency Instrument beams and window functions

Planck Collaboration,, N. Aghanim, C. Armitage-Caplan, M. Arnaud, M. Ashdown, F. Atrio-Barandela, J. Aumont, C. Baccigalupi, A. J. Banday, R. B. Barreiro, E. Battaner, K. Benabed, A. Benoît, A. Benoit-Lévy, J. -P. Bernard, M. Bersanelli, P. Bielewicz, J. Bobin, Jacob Bock, A. Bonaldi & 189 others J. R. Bond, J. Borrill, F. R. Bouchet, M. Bridges, M. Bucher, C. Burigana, Robb Butler, J. -F. Cardoso, A. Catalano, A. Chamballu, Lung-Yih Chiang, P. R. Christensen, S. Church, S. Colombi, L. P. L. Colombo, B. P. Crill, A. Curto, F. Cuttaia, L. Danese, R. D. Davies, Rebecca Davis, P. de Bernardis, A. de Rosa, G. de Zotti, J. Delabrouille, C. Dickinson, J. M. Diego, H. Dole, S. Donzelli, O. Doré, M. Douspis, X. Dupac, G. Efstathiou, T. A. Enßlin, H. K. Eriksen, F. Finelli, O. Forni, M. Frailis, E. Franceschi, T. C. Gaier, S. Galeotta, K. Ganga, M. Giard, Y. Giraud-Héraud, J. González-Nuevo, K. M. Górski, S. Gratton, A. Gregorio, A. Gruppuso, F. K. Hansen, D. Hanson, D. Harrison, S. Henrot-Versillé, C. Hernández-Monteagudo, D. Herranz, Steen Hildebrandt, E. Hivon, M. Hobson, W. A. Holmes, Allan Hornstrup, W. Hovest, K. M. Huffenberger, T. R. Jaffe, A. H. Jaffe, J. Jewell, W. C. Jones, M. Juvela, P. Kangaslahti, E. Keihänen, R. Keskitalo, K. Kiiveri, T. S. Kisner, J. Knoche, L. Knox, M. Kunz, H. Kurki-Suonio, G. Lagache, A. Lähteenmäki, J. -M. Lamarre, A. Lasenby, R. J. Laureijs, C. R. Lawrence, J. P. Leahy, R. Leonardi, J. Lesgourgues, M. Liguori, P. B. Lilje, V. Lindholm, Michael Linden-Vørnle, M. López-Caniego, P. M. Lubin, J. F. Macías-Pérez, D. Maino, N. Mandolesi, M. Maris, D. J. Marshall, P. G. Martin, E. Martínez-González, S. Masi, S. Matarrese, F. Matthai, P. Mazzotta, P. R. Meinhold, A. Melchiorri, L. Mendes, A. Mennella, M. Migliaccio, S. Mitra, A. Moneti, L. Montier, G. Morgante, D. Mortlock, A. Moss, D. Munshi, P. Naselsky, P. Natoli, C. B. Netterfield, Hans Ulrik Nørgaard-Nielsen, D. Novikov, Igor Dmitrievich Novikov, I. J. O'Dwyer, S. Osborne, F. Paci, L. Pagano, D. Paoletti, B. Partridge, F. Pasian, G. Patanchon, O. Perdereau, L. Perotto, F. Perrotta, E. Pierpaoli, D. Pietrobon, S. Plaszczynski, P. Platania, E. Pointecouteau, G. Polenta, N. Ponthieu, L. Popa, T. Poutanen, G. W. Pratt, G. Prézeau, S. Prunet, J. -L. Puget, J. P. Rachen, R. Rebolo, M. Reinecke, M. Remazeilles, S. Ricciardi, T. Riller, G. Rocha, C. Rosset, G. Roudier, J. A. Rubiño-Martín, B. Rusholme, M. Sandri, D. Santos, D. Scott, M. D. Seiffert, E. P. S. Shellard, L. D. Spencer, J. -L. Starck, V. Stolyarov, R. Stompor, F. Sureau, D. Sutton, A. -S. Suur-Uski, J. -F. Sygnet, J. A. Tauber, D. Tavagnacco, L. Terenzi, L. Toffolatti, M. Tomasi, M. Tristram, M. Tucci, J. Tuovinen, M. Türler, G. Umana, L. Valenziano, J. Valiviita, B. Van Tent, J. Varis, P. Vielva, Frank Villa, N. Vittorio, L. A. Wade, B. D. Wandelt, A. Zacchei, A. Zonca

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Abstract

This paper presents the characterization of the in-flight beams, the beam window functions and the associated errors for the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI). Knowledge of the beam profiles is the key to determining their imprint on the transfer function from the observed to the actual sky anisotropy power spectrum. The main beam distortions affect the beam window function, complicating the reconstruction of the anisotropy power spectrum at high multipoles, whereas the sidelobes affect the low and intermediate multipoles. The in-flight assessment of the LFI main beams relied on the measurements performed during Jupiter observations. By stacking the data from Jupiter transits, the main beam profiles are measured down to -20 dB at 30 and 44 GHz, and down to -25 dB at 70 GHz. The main beam solid angles are determined to better than 0.2% at each LFI frequency band. To ensure a characterization of the main beam free from the radiometer noise, a dedicated tuning on the Planck pre-launch optical model is performed. This approach provides an optical model whose beams fully reproduce the measurements in the main beam region, but also allow us to describe the beams at power levels lower than can be reached by the Jupiter measurements themselves. The agreement between the simulated beams and the scanning beams is better than 1% at each LFI frequency band. The simulated beams are used for the computation of the window functions for the effective beams. The error budget in the window functions was estimated considering both main beam and sidelobe contributions, as well as taking into account the radiometer bandshapes. The total uncertainties in the effective beam window functions are: (at ell = 600) 2% and 1.2% at 30 and 44 GHz, respectively; and at ell = 1000, 0.7% at 70 GHz.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberA4
JournalAstronomy & Astrophysics
Volume571
Number of pages22
ISSN0004-6361
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

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Planck Collaboration,, Aghanim, N., Armitage-Caplan, C., Arnaud, M., Ashdown, M., Atrio-Barandela, F., ... Zonca, A. (2014). Planck 2013 results. IV. Low Frequency Instrument beams and window functions. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 571, [A4]. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201321544
Planck Collaboration, ; Aghanim, N. ; Armitage-Caplan, C. ; Arnaud, M. ; Ashdown, M. ; Atrio-Barandela, F. ; Aumont, J. ; Baccigalupi, C. ; Banday, A. J. ; Barreiro, R. B. ; Battaner, E. ; Benabed, K. ; Benoît, A. ; Benoit-Lévy, A. ; Bernard, J. -P. ; Bersanelli, M. ; Bielewicz, P. ; Bobin, J. ; Bock, Jacob ; Bonaldi, A. ; Bond, J. R. ; Borrill, J. ; Bouchet, F. R. ; Bridges, M. ; Bucher, M. ; Burigana, C. ; Butler, Robb ; Cardoso, J. -F. ; Catalano, A. ; Chamballu, A. ; Chiang, Lung-Yih ; Christensen, P. R. ; Church, S. ; Colombi, S. ; Colombo, L. P. L. ; Crill, B. P. ; Curto, A. ; Cuttaia, F. ; Danese, L. ; Davies, R. D. ; Davis, Rebecca ; de Bernardis, P. ; de Rosa, A. ; de Zotti, G. ; Delabrouille, J. ; Dickinson, C. ; Diego, J. M. ; Dole, H. ; Donzelli, S. ; Doré, O. ; Douspis, M. ; Dupac, X. ; Efstathiou, G. ; Enßlin, T. A. ; Eriksen, H. K. ; Finelli, F. ; Forni, O. ; Frailis, M. ; Franceschi, E. ; Gaier, T. C. ; Galeotta, S. ; Ganga, K. ; Giard, M. ; Giraud-Héraud, Y. ; González-Nuevo, J. ; Górski, K. M. ; Gratton, S. ; Gregorio, A. ; Gruppuso, A. ; Hansen, F. K. ; Hanson, D. ; Harrison, D. ; Henrot-Versillé, S. ; Hernández-Monteagudo, C. ; Herranz, D. ; Hildebrandt, Steen ; Hivon, E. ; Hobson, M. ; Holmes, W. A. ; Hornstrup, Allan ; Hovest, W. ; Huffenberger, K. M. ; Jaffe, T. R. ; Jaffe, A. H. ; Jewell, J. ; Jones, W. C. ; Juvela, M. ; Kangaslahti, P. ; Keihänen, E. ; Keskitalo, R. ; Kiiveri, K. ; Kisner, T. S. ; Knoche, J. ; Knox, L. ; Kunz, M. ; Kurki-Suonio, H. ; Lagache, G. ; Lähteenmäki, A. ; Lamarre, J. -M. ; Lasenby, A. ; Laureijs, R. J. ; Lawrence, C. R. ; Leahy, J. P. ; Leonardi, R. ; Lesgourgues, J. ; Liguori, M. ; Lilje, P. B. ; Lindholm, V. ; Linden-Vørnle, Michael ; López-Caniego, M. ; Lubin, P. M. ; Macías-Pérez, J. F. ; Maino, D. ; Mandolesi, N. ; Maris, M. ; Marshall, D. J. ; Martin, P. G. ; Martínez-González, E. ; Masi, S. ; Matarrese, S. ; Matthai, F. ; Mazzotta, P. ; Meinhold, P. R. ; Melchiorri, A. ; Mendes, L. ; Mennella, A. ; Migliaccio, M. ; Mitra, S. ; Moneti, A. ; Montier, L. ; Morgante, G. ; Mortlock, D. ; Moss, A. ; Munshi, D. ; Naselsky, P. ; Natoli, P. ; Netterfield, C. B. ; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik ; Novikov, D. ; Novikov, Igor Dmitrievich ; O'Dwyer, I. J. ; Osborne, S. ; Paci, F. ; Pagano, L. ; Paoletti, D. ; Partridge, B. ; Pasian, F. ; Patanchon, G. ; Perdereau, O. ; Perotto, L. ; Perrotta, F. ; Pierpaoli, E. ; Pietrobon, D. ; Plaszczynski, S. ; Platania, P. ; Pointecouteau, E. ; Polenta, G. ; Ponthieu, N. ; Popa, L. ; Poutanen, T. ; Pratt, G. W. ; Prézeau, G. ; Prunet, S. ; Puget, J. -L. ; Rachen, J. P. ; Rebolo, R. ; Reinecke, M. ; Remazeilles, M. ; Ricciardi, S. ; Riller, T. ; Rocha, G. ; Rosset, C. ; Roudier, G. ; Rubiño-Martín, J. A. ; Rusholme, B. ; Sandri, M. ; Santos, D. ; Scott, D. ; Seiffert, M. D. ; Shellard, E. P. S. ; Spencer, L. D. ; Starck, J. -L. ; Stolyarov, V. ; Stompor, R. ; Sureau, F. ; Sutton, D. ; Suur-Uski, A. -S. ; Sygnet, J. -F. ; Tauber, J. A. ; Tavagnacco, D. ; Terenzi, L. ; Toffolatti, L. ; Tomasi, M. ; Tristram, M. ; Tucci, M. ; Tuovinen, J. ; Türler, M. ; Umana, G. ; Valenziano, L. ; Valiviita, J. ; Van Tent, B. ; Varis, J. ; Vielva, P. ; Villa, Frank ; Vittorio, N. ; Wade, L. A. ; Wandelt, B. D. ; Zacchei, A. ; Zonca, A. / Planck 2013 results. IV. Low Frequency Instrument beams and window functions. In: Astronomy & Astrophysics. 2014 ; Vol. 571.
@article{4ffd2c2f0b5b4f0bb196ea29775a0c19,
title = "Planck 2013 results. IV. Low Frequency Instrument beams and window functions",
abstract = "This paper presents the characterization of the in-flight beams, the beam window functions and the associated errors for the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI). Knowledge of the beam profiles is the key to determining their imprint on the transfer function from the observed to the actual sky anisotropy power spectrum. The main beam distortions affect the beam window function, complicating the reconstruction of the anisotropy power spectrum at high multipoles, whereas the sidelobes affect the low and intermediate multipoles. The in-flight assessment of the LFI main beams relied on the measurements performed during Jupiter observations. By stacking the data from Jupiter transits, the main beam profiles are measured down to -20 dB at 30 and 44 GHz, and down to -25 dB at 70 GHz. The main beam solid angles are determined to better than 0.2{\%} at each LFI frequency band. To ensure a characterization of the main beam free from the radiometer noise, a dedicated tuning on the Planck pre-launch optical model is performed. This approach provides an optical model whose beams fully reproduce the measurements in the main beam region, but also allow us to describe the beams at power levels lower than can be reached by the Jupiter measurements themselves. The agreement between the simulated beams and the scanning beams is better than 1{\%} at each LFI frequency band. The simulated beams are used for the computation of the window functions for the effective beams. The error budget in the window functions was estimated considering both main beam and sidelobe contributions, as well as taking into account the radiometer bandshapes. The total uncertainties in the effective beam window functions are: (at ell = 600) 2{\%} and 1.2{\%} at 30 and 44 GHz, respectively; and at ell = 1000, 0.7{\%} at 70 GHz.",
author = "{Planck Collaboration,} and N. Aghanim and C. Armitage-Caplan and M. Arnaud and M. Ashdown and F. Atrio-Barandela and J. Aumont and C. Baccigalupi and Banday, {A. J.} and Barreiro, {R. B.} and E. Battaner and K. Benabed and A. Beno{\^i}t and A. Benoit-L{\'e}vy and Bernard, {J. -P.} and M. Bersanelli and P. Bielewicz and J. Bobin and Jacob Bock and A. Bonaldi and Bond, {J. R.} and J. Borrill and Bouchet, {F. R.} and M. Bridges and M. Bucher and C. Burigana and Robb Butler and Cardoso, {J. -F.} and A. Catalano and A. Chamballu and Lung-Yih Chiang and Christensen, {P. R.} and S. Church and S. Colombi and Colombo, {L. P. L.} and Crill, {B. P.} and A. Curto and F. Cuttaia and L. Danese and Davies, {R. D.} and Rebecca Davis and {de Bernardis}, P. and {de Rosa}, A. and {de Zotti}, G. and J. Delabrouille and C. Dickinson and Diego, {J. M.} and H. Dole and S. Donzelli and O. Dor{\'e} and M. Douspis and X. Dupac and G. Efstathiou and En{\ss}lin, {T. A.} and Eriksen, {H. K.} and F. Finelli and O. Forni and M. Frailis and E. Franceschi and Gaier, {T. C.} and S. Galeotta and K. Ganga and M. Giard and Y. Giraud-H{\'e}raud and J. Gonz{\'a}lez-Nuevo and G{\'o}rski, {K. M.} and S. Gratton and A. Gregorio and A. Gruppuso and Hansen, {F. K.} and D. Hanson and D. Harrison and S. Henrot-Versill{\'e} and C. Hern{\'a}ndez-Monteagudo and D. Herranz and Steen Hildebrandt and E. Hivon and M. Hobson and Holmes, {W. A.} and Allan Hornstrup and W. Hovest and Huffenberger, {K. M.} and Jaffe, {T. R.} and Jaffe, {A. H.} and J. Jewell and Jones, {W. C.} and M. Juvela and P. Kangaslahti and E. Keih{\"a}nen and R. Keskitalo and K. Kiiveri and Kisner, {T. S.} and J. Knoche and L. Knox and M. Kunz and H. Kurki-Suonio and G. Lagache and A. L{\"a}hteenm{\"a}ki and Lamarre, {J. -M.} and A. Lasenby and Laureijs, {R. J.} and Lawrence, {C. R.} and Leahy, {J. P.} and R. Leonardi and J. Lesgourgues and M. Liguori and Lilje, {P. B.} and V. Lindholm and Michael Linden-V{\o}rnle and M. L{\'o}pez-Caniego and Lubin, {P. M.} and Mac{\'i}as-P{\'e}rez, {J. F.} and D. Maino and N. Mandolesi and M. Maris and Marshall, {D. J.} and Martin, {P. G.} and E. Mart{\'i}nez-Gonz{\'a}lez and S. Masi and S. Matarrese and F. Matthai and P. Mazzotta and Meinhold, {P. R.} and A. Melchiorri and L. Mendes and A. Mennella and M. Migliaccio and S. Mitra and A. Moneti and L. Montier and G. Morgante and D. Mortlock and A. Moss and D. Munshi and P. Naselsky and P. Natoli and Netterfield, {C. B.} and N{\o}rgaard-Nielsen, {Hans Ulrik} and D. Novikov and Novikov, {Igor Dmitrievich} and O'Dwyer, {I. J.} and S. Osborne and F. Paci and L. Pagano and D. Paoletti and B. Partridge and F. Pasian and G. Patanchon and O. Perdereau and L. Perotto and F. Perrotta and E. Pierpaoli and D. Pietrobon and S. Plaszczynski and P. Platania and E. Pointecouteau and G. Polenta and N. Ponthieu and L. Popa and T. Poutanen and Pratt, {G. W.} and G. Pr{\'e}zeau and S. Prunet and Puget, {J. -L.} and Rachen, {J. P.} and R. Rebolo and M. Reinecke and M. Remazeilles and S. Ricciardi and T. Riller and G. Rocha and C. Rosset and G. Roudier and Rubi{\~n}o-Mart{\'i}n, {J. A.} and B. Rusholme and M. Sandri and D. Santos and D. Scott and Seiffert, {M. D.} and Shellard, {E. P. S.} and Spencer, {L. D.} and Starck, {J. -L.} and V. Stolyarov and R. Stompor and F. Sureau and D. Sutton and Suur-Uski, {A. -S.} and Sygnet, {J. -F.} and Tauber, {J. A.} and D. Tavagnacco and L. Terenzi and L. Toffolatti and M. Tomasi and M. Tristram and M. Tucci and J. Tuovinen and M. T{\"u}rler and G. Umana and L. Valenziano and J. Valiviita and {Van Tent}, B. and J. Varis and P. Vielva and Frank Villa and N. Vittorio and Wade, {L. A.} and Wandelt, {B. D.} and A. Zacchei and A. Zonca",
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doi = "10.1051/0004-6361/201321544",
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Planck Collaboration, Aghanim, N, Armitage-Caplan, C, Arnaud, M, Ashdown, M, Atrio-Barandela, F, Aumont, J, Baccigalupi, C, Banday, AJ, Barreiro, RB, Battaner, E, Benabed, K, Benoît, A, Benoit-Lévy, A, Bernard, J-P, Bersanelli, M, Bielewicz, P, Bobin, J, Bock, J, Bonaldi, A, Bond, JR, Borrill, J, Bouchet, FR, Bridges, M, Bucher, M, Burigana, C, Butler, R, Cardoso, J-F, Catalano, A, Chamballu, A, Chiang, L-Y, Christensen, PR, Church, S, Colombi, S, Colombo, LPL, Crill, BP, Curto, A, Cuttaia, F, Danese, L, Davies, RD, Davis, R, de Bernardis, P, de Rosa, A, de Zotti, G, Delabrouille, J, Dickinson, C, Diego, JM, Dole, H, Donzelli, S, Doré, O, Douspis, M, Dupac, X, Efstathiou, G, Enßlin, TA, Eriksen, HK, Finelli, F, Forni, O, Frailis, M, Franceschi, E, Gaier, TC, Galeotta, S, Ganga, K, Giard, M, Giraud-Héraud, Y, González-Nuevo, J, Górski, KM, Gratton, S, Gregorio, A, Gruppuso, A, Hansen, FK, Hanson, D, Harrison, D, Henrot-Versillé, S, Hernández-Monteagudo, C, Herranz, D, Hildebrandt, S, Hivon, E, Hobson, M, Holmes, WA, Hornstrup, A, Hovest, W, Huffenberger, KM, Jaffe, TR, Jaffe, AH, Jewell, J, Jones, WC, Juvela, M, Kangaslahti, P, Keihänen, E, Keskitalo, R, Kiiveri, K, Kisner, TS, Knoche, J, Knox, L, Kunz, M, Kurki-Suonio, H, Lagache, G, Lähteenmäki, A, Lamarre, J-M, Lasenby, A, Laureijs, RJ, Lawrence, CR, Leahy, JP, Leonardi, R, Lesgourgues, J, Liguori, M, Lilje, PB, Lindholm, V, Linden-Vørnle, M, López-Caniego, M, Lubin, PM, Macías-Pérez, JF, Maino, D, Mandolesi, N, Maris, M, Marshall, DJ, Martin, PG, Martínez-González, E, Masi, S, Matarrese, S, Matthai, F, Mazzotta, P, Meinhold, PR, Melchiorri, A, Mendes, L, Mennella, A, Migliaccio, M, Mitra, S, Moneti, A, Montier, L, Morgante, G, Mortlock, D, Moss, A, Munshi, D, Naselsky, P, Natoli, P, Netterfield, CB, Nørgaard-Nielsen, HU, Novikov, D, Novikov, ID, O'Dwyer, IJ, Osborne, S, Paci, F, Pagano, L, Paoletti, D, Partridge, B, Pasian, F, Patanchon, G, Perdereau, O, Perotto, L, Perrotta, F, Pierpaoli, E, Pietrobon, D, Plaszczynski, S, Platania, P, Pointecouteau, E, Polenta, G, Ponthieu, N, Popa, L, Poutanen, T, Pratt, GW, Prézeau, G, Prunet, S, Puget, J-L, Rachen, JP, Rebolo, R, Reinecke, M, Remazeilles, M, Ricciardi, S, Riller, T, Rocha, G, Rosset, C, Roudier, G, Rubiño-Martín, JA, Rusholme, B, Sandri, M, Santos, D, Scott, D, Seiffert, MD, Shellard, EPS, Spencer, LD, Starck, J-L, Stolyarov, V, Stompor, R, Sureau, F, Sutton, D, Suur-Uski, A-S, Sygnet, J-F, Tauber, JA, Tavagnacco, D, Terenzi, L, Toffolatti, L, Tomasi, M, Tristram, M, Tucci, M, Tuovinen, J, Türler, M, Umana, G, Valenziano, L, Valiviita, J, Van Tent, B, Varis, J, Vielva, P, Villa, F, Vittorio, N, Wade, LA, Wandelt, BD, Zacchei, A & Zonca, A 2014, 'Planck 2013 results. IV. Low Frequency Instrument beams and window functions', Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 571, A4. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201321544

Planck 2013 results. IV. Low Frequency Instrument beams and window functions. / Planck Collaboration,; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J. -P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, Jacob; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, Robb; Cardoso, J. -F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, Lung-Yih; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, Rebecca; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T. C.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, Steen; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, Allan; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Kangaslahti, P.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J. -M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Lindholm, V.; Linden-Vørnle, Michael; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Novikov, D.; Novikov, Igor Dmitrievich; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J. -L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J. -L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Sygnet, J. -F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, Frank; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

In: Astronomy & Astrophysics, Vol. 571, A4, 2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Planck 2013 results. IV. Low Frequency Instrument beams and window functions

AU - Planck Collaboration,,

AU - Aghanim, N.

AU - Armitage-Caplan, C.

AU - Arnaud, M.

AU - Ashdown, M.

AU - Atrio-Barandela, F.

AU - Aumont, J.

AU - Baccigalupi, C.

AU - Banday, A. J.

AU - Barreiro, R. B.

AU - Battaner, E.

AU - Benabed, K.

AU - Benoît, A.

AU - Benoit-Lévy, A.

AU - Bernard, J. -P.

AU - Bersanelli, M.

AU - Bielewicz, P.

AU - Bobin, J.

AU - Bock, Jacob

AU - Bonaldi, A.

AU - Bond, J. R.

AU - Borrill, J.

AU - Bouchet, F. R.

AU - Bridges, M.

AU - Bucher, M.

AU - Burigana, C.

AU - Butler, Robb

AU - Cardoso, J. -F.

AU - Catalano, A.

AU - Chamballu, A.

AU - Chiang, Lung-Yih

AU - Christensen, P. R.

AU - Church, S.

AU - Colombi, S.

AU - Colombo, L. P. L.

AU - Crill, B. P.

AU - Curto, A.

AU - Cuttaia, F.

AU - Danese, L.

AU - Davies, R. D.

AU - Davis, Rebecca

AU - de Bernardis, P.

AU - de Rosa, A.

AU - de Zotti, G.

AU - Delabrouille, J.

AU - Dickinson, C.

AU - Diego, J. M.

AU - Dole, H.

AU - Donzelli, S.

AU - Doré, O.

AU - Douspis, M.

AU - Dupac, X.

AU - Efstathiou, G.

AU - Enßlin, T. A.

AU - Eriksen, H. K.

AU - Finelli, F.

AU - Forni, O.

AU - Frailis, M.

AU - Franceschi, E.

AU - Gaier, T. C.

AU - Galeotta, S.

AU - Ganga, K.

AU - Giard, M.

AU - Giraud-Héraud, Y.

AU - González-Nuevo, J.

AU - Górski, K. M.

AU - Gratton, S.

AU - Gregorio, A.

AU - Gruppuso, A.

AU - Hansen, F. K.

AU - Hanson, D.

AU - Harrison, D.

AU - Henrot-Versillé, S.

AU - Hernández-Monteagudo, C.

AU - Herranz, D.

AU - Hildebrandt, Steen

AU - Hivon, E.

AU - Hobson, M.

AU - Holmes, W. A.

AU - Hornstrup, Allan

AU - Hovest, W.

AU - Huffenberger, K. M.

AU - Jaffe, T. R.

AU - Jaffe, A. H.

AU - Jewell, J.

AU - Jones, W. C.

AU - Juvela, M.

AU - Kangaslahti, P.

AU - Keihänen, E.

AU - Keskitalo, R.

AU - Kiiveri, K.

AU - Kisner, T. S.

AU - Knoche, J.

AU - Knox, L.

AU - Kunz, M.

AU - Kurki-Suonio, H.

AU - Lagache, G.

AU - Lähteenmäki, A.

AU - Lamarre, J. -M.

AU - Lasenby, A.

AU - Laureijs, R. J.

AU - Lawrence, C. R.

AU - Leahy, J. P.

AU - Leonardi, R.

AU - Lesgourgues, J.

AU - Liguori, M.

AU - Lilje, P. B.

AU - Lindholm, V.

AU - Linden-Vørnle, Michael

AU - López-Caniego, M.

AU - Lubin, P. M.

AU - Macías-Pérez, J. F.

AU - Maino, D.

AU - Mandolesi, N.

AU - Maris, M.

AU - Marshall, D. J.

AU - Martin, P. G.

AU - Martínez-González, E.

AU - Masi, S.

AU - Matarrese, S.

AU - Matthai, F.

AU - Mazzotta, P.

AU - Meinhold, P. R.

AU - Melchiorri, A.

AU - Mendes, L.

AU - Mennella, A.

AU - Migliaccio, M.

AU - Mitra, S.

AU - Moneti, A.

AU - Montier, L.

AU - Morgante, G.

AU - Mortlock, D.

AU - Moss, A.

AU - Munshi, D.

AU - Naselsky, P.

AU - Natoli, P.

AU - Netterfield, C. B.

AU - Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik

AU - Novikov, D.

AU - Novikov, Igor Dmitrievich

AU - O'Dwyer, I. J.

AU - Osborne, S.

AU - Paci, F.

AU - Pagano, L.

AU - Paoletti, D.

AU - Partridge, B.

AU - Pasian, F.

AU - Patanchon, G.

AU - Perdereau, O.

AU - Perotto, L.

AU - Perrotta, F.

AU - Pierpaoli, E.

AU - Pietrobon, D.

AU - Plaszczynski, S.

AU - Platania, P.

AU - Pointecouteau, E.

AU - Polenta, G.

AU - Ponthieu, N.

AU - Popa, L.

AU - Poutanen, T.

AU - Pratt, G. W.

AU - Prézeau, G.

AU - Prunet, S.

AU - Puget, J. -L.

AU - Rachen, J. P.

AU - Rebolo, R.

AU - Reinecke, M.

AU - Remazeilles, M.

AU - Ricciardi, S.

AU - Riller, T.

AU - Rocha, G.

AU - Rosset, C.

AU - Roudier, G.

AU - Rubiño-Martín, J. A.

AU - Rusholme, B.

AU - Sandri, M.

AU - Santos, D.

AU - Scott, D.

AU - Seiffert, M. D.

AU - Shellard, E. P. S.

AU - Spencer, L. D.

AU - Starck, J. -L.

AU - Stolyarov, V.

AU - Stompor, R.

AU - Sureau, F.

AU - Sutton, D.

AU - Suur-Uski, A. -S.

AU - Sygnet, J. -F.

AU - Tauber, J. A.

AU - Tavagnacco, D.

AU - Terenzi, L.

AU - Toffolatti, L.

AU - Tomasi, M.

AU - Tristram, M.

AU - Tucci, M.

AU - Tuovinen, J.

AU - Türler, M.

AU - Umana, G.

AU - Valenziano, L.

AU - Valiviita, J.

AU - Van Tent, B.

AU - Varis, J.

AU - Vielva, P.

AU - Villa, Frank

AU - Vittorio, N.

AU - Wade, L. A.

AU - Wandelt, B. D.

AU - Zacchei, A.

AU - Zonca, A.

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - This paper presents the characterization of the in-flight beams, the beam window functions and the associated errors for the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI). Knowledge of the beam profiles is the key to determining their imprint on the transfer function from the observed to the actual sky anisotropy power spectrum. The main beam distortions affect the beam window function, complicating the reconstruction of the anisotropy power spectrum at high multipoles, whereas the sidelobes affect the low and intermediate multipoles. The in-flight assessment of the LFI main beams relied on the measurements performed during Jupiter observations. By stacking the data from Jupiter transits, the main beam profiles are measured down to -20 dB at 30 and 44 GHz, and down to -25 dB at 70 GHz. The main beam solid angles are determined to better than 0.2% at each LFI frequency band. To ensure a characterization of the main beam free from the radiometer noise, a dedicated tuning on the Planck pre-launch optical model is performed. This approach provides an optical model whose beams fully reproduce the measurements in the main beam region, but also allow us to describe the beams at power levels lower than can be reached by the Jupiter measurements themselves. The agreement between the simulated beams and the scanning beams is better than 1% at each LFI frequency band. The simulated beams are used for the computation of the window functions for the effective beams. The error budget in the window functions was estimated considering both main beam and sidelobe contributions, as well as taking into account the radiometer bandshapes. The total uncertainties in the effective beam window functions are: (at ell = 600) 2% and 1.2% at 30 and 44 GHz, respectively; and at ell = 1000, 0.7% at 70 GHz.

AB - This paper presents the characterization of the in-flight beams, the beam window functions and the associated errors for the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI). Knowledge of the beam profiles is the key to determining their imprint on the transfer function from the observed to the actual sky anisotropy power spectrum. The main beam distortions affect the beam window function, complicating the reconstruction of the anisotropy power spectrum at high multipoles, whereas the sidelobes affect the low and intermediate multipoles. The in-flight assessment of the LFI main beams relied on the measurements performed during Jupiter observations. By stacking the data from Jupiter transits, the main beam profiles are measured down to -20 dB at 30 and 44 GHz, and down to -25 dB at 70 GHz. The main beam solid angles are determined to better than 0.2% at each LFI frequency band. To ensure a characterization of the main beam free from the radiometer noise, a dedicated tuning on the Planck pre-launch optical model is performed. This approach provides an optical model whose beams fully reproduce the measurements in the main beam region, but also allow us to describe the beams at power levels lower than can be reached by the Jupiter measurements themselves. The agreement between the simulated beams and the scanning beams is better than 1% at each LFI frequency band. The simulated beams are used for the computation of the window functions for the effective beams. The error budget in the window functions was estimated considering both main beam and sidelobe contributions, as well as taking into account the radiometer bandshapes. The total uncertainties in the effective beam window functions are: (at ell = 600) 2% and 1.2% at 30 and 44 GHz, respectively; and at ell = 1000, 0.7% at 70 GHz.

U2 - 10.1051/0004-6361/201321544

DO - 10.1051/0004-6361/201321544

M3 - Journal article

VL - 571

JO - Astronomy & Astrophysics

JF - Astronomy & Astrophysics

SN - 0004-6361

M1 - A4

ER -

Planck Collaboration, Aghanim N, Armitage-Caplan C, Arnaud M, Ashdown M, Atrio-Barandela F et al. Planck 2013 results. IV. Low Frequency Instrument beams and window functions. Astronomy & Astrophysics. 2014;571. A4. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201321544