Piscine orthoreovirus subtype 3 (PRV-3) causes heart inflammation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Niccolò Vendramin*, Dhamotharan Kannimuthu, Anne Berit Olsen, Argelia Cuenca, Lena Hammerlund Teige, Øystein Wessel, Tine Moesgaard Iburg, Maria Krudtaa Dahle, Espen Rimstad, Niels Jørgen Olesen

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) mediated diseases have emerged throughout salmonid aquaculture. Three PRV subtypes are currently reported as causative agents of or in association with diseases in different salmonid species. PRV-1 causes heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and is associated with jaundice syndrome in farmed chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). PRV-2 causes erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome (EIBS) in coho salmon in Japan. PRV-3 has recently been associated with a disease in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) characterized by anaemia, heart and red muscle pathology; to jaundice syndrome in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). In this study, we conducted a 10-week long experimental infection trial in rainbow trout with purified PRV-3 particles to assess the causal relationship between the virus and development of heart inflammation. The monitoring the PRV-3 load in heart and spleen by RT-qPCR shows a progressive increase of viral RNA to a peak, followed by clearance without a measurable change in haematocrit. The development of characteristic cardiac histopathological findings occurred in the late phase of the trial and was associated with increased expression of CD8+, indicating cytotoxic T cell proliferation. The findings indicate that, under these experimental conditions, PRV-3 infection in rainbow trout act similarly to PRV-1 infection in Atlantic salmon with regards to immunological responses and development of heart pathology, but not in the ability to establish a persistent infection.
Original languageEnglish
Article number632
JournalVeterinary Research
Volume50
Issue number1
Number of pages13
ISSN0928-4249
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Cite this

Vendramin, Niccolò ; Kannimuthu, Dhamotharan ; Olsen, Anne Berit ; Cuenca, Argelia ; Teige, Lena Hammerlund ; Wessel, Øystein ; Moesgaard Iburg, Tine ; Dahle, Maria Krudtaa ; Rimstad, Espen ; Olesen, Niels Jørgen. / Piscine orthoreovirus subtype 3 (PRV-3) causes heart inflammation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In: Veterinary Research. 2019 ; Vol. 50, No. 1.
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title = "Piscine orthoreovirus subtype 3 (PRV-3) causes heart inflammation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)",
abstract = "Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) mediated diseases have emerged throughout salmonid aquaculture. Three PRV subtypes are currently reported as causative agents of or in association with diseases in different salmonid species. PRV-1 causes heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and is associated with jaundice syndrome in farmed chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). PRV-2 causes erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome (EIBS) in coho salmon in Japan. PRV-3 has recently been associated with a disease in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) characterized by anaemia, heart and red muscle pathology; to jaundice syndrome in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). In this study, we conducted a 10-week long experimental infection trial in rainbow trout with purified PRV-3 particles to assess the causal relationship between the virus and development of heart inflammation. The monitoring the PRV-3 load in heart and spleen by RT-qPCR shows a progressive increase of viral RNA to a peak, followed by clearance without a measurable change in haematocrit. The development of characteristic cardiac histopathological findings occurred in the late phase of the trial and was associated with increased expression of CD8+, indicating cytotoxic T cell proliferation. The findings indicate that, under these experimental conditions, PRV-3 infection in rainbow trout act similarly to PRV-1 infection in Atlantic salmon with regards to immunological responses and development of heart pathology, but not in the ability to establish a persistent infection.",
author = "Niccol{\`o} Vendramin and Dhamotharan Kannimuthu and Olsen, {Anne Berit} and Argelia Cuenca and Teige, {Lena Hammerlund} and {\O}ystein Wessel and {Moesgaard Iburg}, Tine and Dahle, {Maria Krudtaa} and Espen Rimstad and Olesen, {Niels J{\o}rgen}",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1186/s13567-019-0632-4",
language = "English",
volume = "50",
journal = "Veterinary Research",
issn = "0928-4249",
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Piscine orthoreovirus subtype 3 (PRV-3) causes heart inflammation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). / Vendramin, Niccolò; Kannimuthu, Dhamotharan; Olsen, Anne Berit; Cuenca, Argelia; Teige, Lena Hammerlund; Wessel, Øystein; Moesgaard Iburg, Tine; Dahle, Maria Krudtaa; Rimstad, Espen; Olesen, Niels Jørgen.

In: Veterinary Research, Vol. 50, No. 1, 632, 2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Piscine orthoreovirus subtype 3 (PRV-3) causes heart inflammation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

AU - Vendramin, Niccolò

AU - Kannimuthu, Dhamotharan

AU - Olsen, Anne Berit

AU - Cuenca, Argelia

AU - Teige, Lena Hammerlund

AU - Wessel, Øystein

AU - Moesgaard Iburg, Tine

AU - Dahle, Maria Krudtaa

AU - Rimstad, Espen

AU - Olesen, Niels Jørgen

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) mediated diseases have emerged throughout salmonid aquaculture. Three PRV subtypes are currently reported as causative agents of or in association with diseases in different salmonid species. PRV-1 causes heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and is associated with jaundice syndrome in farmed chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). PRV-2 causes erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome (EIBS) in coho salmon in Japan. PRV-3 has recently been associated with a disease in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) characterized by anaemia, heart and red muscle pathology; to jaundice syndrome in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). In this study, we conducted a 10-week long experimental infection trial in rainbow trout with purified PRV-3 particles to assess the causal relationship between the virus and development of heart inflammation. The monitoring the PRV-3 load in heart and spleen by RT-qPCR shows a progressive increase of viral RNA to a peak, followed by clearance without a measurable change in haematocrit. The development of characteristic cardiac histopathological findings occurred in the late phase of the trial and was associated with increased expression of CD8+, indicating cytotoxic T cell proliferation. The findings indicate that, under these experimental conditions, PRV-3 infection in rainbow trout act similarly to PRV-1 infection in Atlantic salmon with regards to immunological responses and development of heart pathology, but not in the ability to establish a persistent infection.

AB - Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) mediated diseases have emerged throughout salmonid aquaculture. Three PRV subtypes are currently reported as causative agents of or in association with diseases in different salmonid species. PRV-1 causes heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and is associated with jaundice syndrome in farmed chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). PRV-2 causes erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome (EIBS) in coho salmon in Japan. PRV-3 has recently been associated with a disease in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) characterized by anaemia, heart and red muscle pathology; to jaundice syndrome in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). In this study, we conducted a 10-week long experimental infection trial in rainbow trout with purified PRV-3 particles to assess the causal relationship between the virus and development of heart inflammation. The monitoring the PRV-3 load in heart and spleen by RT-qPCR shows a progressive increase of viral RNA to a peak, followed by clearance without a measurable change in haematocrit. The development of characteristic cardiac histopathological findings occurred in the late phase of the trial and was associated with increased expression of CD8+, indicating cytotoxic T cell proliferation. The findings indicate that, under these experimental conditions, PRV-3 infection in rainbow trout act similarly to PRV-1 infection in Atlantic salmon with regards to immunological responses and development of heart pathology, but not in the ability to establish a persistent infection.

U2 - 10.1186/s13567-019-0632-4

DO - 10.1186/s13567-019-0632-4

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 30777130

VL - 50

JO - Veterinary Research

JF - Veterinary Research

SN - 0928-4249

IS - 1

M1 - 632

ER -