Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is endemic in farmed rainbow trout in continental Europe and in various salmonid fish species at the Pacific coast of North America. IHN has never occurred in European Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farms, but is considered as a major threat for the European salmon industry. Another virus, Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV), is widespread in the sea phase of Atlantic salmon, and is identified as the causative agent of heart and skeletal muscle inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between a primary PRV infection and a secondary IHNV infection under experimental conditions. A PRV cohabitation challenge was performed with Atlantic salmon. At peak of PRV viremia the fish were challenged by immersion with an IHNV genogroup E isolate. Clinical signs and morbidity were monitored. Target organs were sampled at selected time points to assess viral loads of both pathogens. Antiviral immune response and presence of histopathological findings were also investigated. Whereas the PRV-negative/IHNV positive group suffered significant decrease in survival caused by IHNV, the PRV infected groups did not suffer any morbidity and showed negligible levels of IHNV infection. Antiviral response genes were induced, as measured in spleen samples, from PRV infected fish prior to IHNV challenge. In conclusion, PRV-infection protects Atlantic salmon against IHNV infection and morbidity, most likely by inducing a protective innate antiviral response.
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Vendramin, N., Alencar, A. L. F., Moesgaard Iburg, T., Dahle, M. K., Wessel, Ø., Olsen, A. B., Rimstad, E., & Olesen, N. J. (2018). Piscine orthoreovirus infection in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) protects against subsequent challenge with infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). Veterinary Research, 49(1), . https://doi.org/10.1186/s13567-018-0524-z