Piscine orthoreovirus infection in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) protects against subsequent challenge with infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV)

Niccolò Vendramin*, Anna Luiza Farias Alencar, Tine Moesgaard Iburg, Maria Krudtaa Dahle, Øystein Wessel, Anne Berit Olsen, Espen Rimstad, Niels Jørgen Olesen

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is endemic in farmed rainbow trout in continental Europe and in various salmonid fish species at the Pacific coast of North America. IHN has never occurred in European Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farms, but is considered as a major threat for the European salmon industry. Another virus, Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV), is widespread in the sea phase of Atlantic salmon, and is identified as the causative agent of heart and skeletal muscle inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between a primary PRV infection and a secondary IHNV infection under experimental conditions. A PRV cohabitation challenge was performed with Atlantic salmon. At peak of PRV viremia the fish were challenged by immersion with an IHNV genogroup E isolate. Clinical signs and morbidity were monitored. Target organs were sampled at selected time points to assess viral loads of both pathogens. Antiviral immune response and presence of histopathological findings were also investigated. Whereas the PRV-negative/IHNV positive group suffered significant decrease in survival caused by IHNV, the PRV infected groups did not suffer any morbidity and showed negligible levels of IHNV infection. Antiviral response genes were induced, as measured in spleen samples, from PRV infected fish prior to IHNV challenge. In conclusion, PRV-infection protects Atlantic salmon against IHNV infection and morbidity, most likely by inducing a protective innate antiviral response.
Original languageEnglish
Article number30
JournalVeterinary Research
Volume49
Issue number1
Number of pages12
ISSN0928-4249
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Bibliographical note

© The Author(s) 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Cite this

@article{e15f89e056d141098488800d9ee6cb8c,
title = "Piscine orthoreovirus infection in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) protects against subsequent challenge with infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV)",
abstract = "Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is endemic in farmed rainbow trout in continental Europe and in various salmonid fish species at the Pacific coast of North America. IHN has never occurred in European Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farms, but is considered as a major threat for the European salmon industry. Another virus, Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV), is widespread in the sea phase of Atlantic salmon, and is identified as the causative agent of heart and skeletal muscle inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between a primary PRV infection and a secondary IHNV infection under experimental conditions. A PRV cohabitation challenge was performed with Atlantic salmon. At peak of PRV viremia the fish were challenged by immersion with an IHNV genogroup E isolate. Clinical signs and morbidity were monitored. Target organs were sampled at selected time points to assess viral loads of both pathogens. Antiviral immune response and presence of histopathological findings were also investigated. Whereas the PRV-negative/IHNV positive group suffered significant decrease in survival caused by IHNV, the PRV infected groups did not suffer any morbidity and showed negligible levels of IHNV infection. Antiviral response genes were induced, as measured in spleen samples, from PRV infected fish prior to IHNV challenge. In conclusion, PRV-infection protects Atlantic salmon against IHNV infection and morbidity, most likely by inducing a protective innate antiviral response.",
author = "Niccol{\`o} Vendramin and Alencar, {Anna Luiza Farias} and {Moesgaard Iburg}, Tine and Dahle, {Maria Krudtaa} and {\O}ystein Wessel and Olsen, {Anne Berit} and Espen Rimstad and Olesen, {Niels J{\o}rgen}",
note = "{\circledC} The Author(s) 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.",
year = "2018",
doi = "10.1186/s13567-018-0524-z",
language = "English",
volume = "49",
journal = "Veterinary Research",
issn = "0928-4249",
publisher = "BioMed Central Ltd.",
number = "1",

}

Piscine orthoreovirus infection in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) protects against subsequent challenge with infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). / Vendramin, Niccolò; Alencar, Anna Luiza Farias; Moesgaard Iburg, Tine; Dahle, Maria Krudtaa; Wessel, Øystein; Olsen, Anne Berit; Rimstad, Espen; Olesen, Niels Jørgen.

In: Veterinary Research, Vol. 49, No. 1, 30, 2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Piscine orthoreovirus infection in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) protects against subsequent challenge with infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV)

AU - Vendramin, Niccolò

AU - Alencar, Anna Luiza Farias

AU - Moesgaard Iburg, Tine

AU - Dahle, Maria Krudtaa

AU - Wessel, Øystein

AU - Olsen, Anne Berit

AU - Rimstad, Espen

AU - Olesen, Niels Jørgen

N1 - © The Author(s) 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is endemic in farmed rainbow trout in continental Europe and in various salmonid fish species at the Pacific coast of North America. IHN has never occurred in European Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farms, but is considered as a major threat for the European salmon industry. Another virus, Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV), is widespread in the sea phase of Atlantic salmon, and is identified as the causative agent of heart and skeletal muscle inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between a primary PRV infection and a secondary IHNV infection under experimental conditions. A PRV cohabitation challenge was performed with Atlantic salmon. At peak of PRV viremia the fish were challenged by immersion with an IHNV genogroup E isolate. Clinical signs and morbidity were monitored. Target organs were sampled at selected time points to assess viral loads of both pathogens. Antiviral immune response and presence of histopathological findings were also investigated. Whereas the PRV-negative/IHNV positive group suffered significant decrease in survival caused by IHNV, the PRV infected groups did not suffer any morbidity and showed negligible levels of IHNV infection. Antiviral response genes were induced, as measured in spleen samples, from PRV infected fish prior to IHNV challenge. In conclusion, PRV-infection protects Atlantic salmon against IHNV infection and morbidity, most likely by inducing a protective innate antiviral response.

AB - Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is endemic in farmed rainbow trout in continental Europe and in various salmonid fish species at the Pacific coast of North America. IHN has never occurred in European Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farms, but is considered as a major threat for the European salmon industry. Another virus, Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV), is widespread in the sea phase of Atlantic salmon, and is identified as the causative agent of heart and skeletal muscle inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between a primary PRV infection and a secondary IHNV infection under experimental conditions. A PRV cohabitation challenge was performed with Atlantic salmon. At peak of PRV viremia the fish were challenged by immersion with an IHNV genogroup E isolate. Clinical signs and morbidity were monitored. Target organs were sampled at selected time points to assess viral loads of both pathogens. Antiviral immune response and presence of histopathological findings were also investigated. Whereas the PRV-negative/IHNV positive group suffered significant decrease in survival caused by IHNV, the PRV infected groups did not suffer any morbidity and showed negligible levels of IHNV infection. Antiviral response genes were induced, as measured in spleen samples, from PRV infected fish prior to IHNV challenge. In conclusion, PRV-infection protects Atlantic salmon against IHNV infection and morbidity, most likely by inducing a protective innate antiviral response.

U2 - 10.1186/s13567-018-0524-z

DO - 10.1186/s13567-018-0524-z

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 29534748

VL - 49

JO - Veterinary Research

JF - Veterinary Research

SN - 0928-4249

IS - 1

M1 - 30

ER -