Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) is a common and widely distributed virus of salmonids. Since its discovery in 2010, the virus has been detected in wild and farmed stocks from North America, South America, Europe and East Asia in both fresh and salt water environments. Phylogenetic analysis suggests three distinct genogroups of PRV with generally discrete host tropisms and/or regional patterns. PRV-1 is found mainly in Atlantic (Salmo salar), Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) Salmon of Europe and the Americas; PRV-2 has only been detected in Coho Salmon of Japan; and PRV-3 has been reported primarily in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Europe. All three genotypes can establish high-load systemic infections by targeting red blood cells for principal replication. Each genotype has also demonstrated potential to cause circulatory disease. At the same time, high-load PRV infections occur in non-diseased salmon and trout, indicating a complexity for defining PRV's role in disease aetiology. Here, we summarize the current body of knowledge regarding PRV following 10 years of study.
- Piscine orthoreovirus