Physical activity energy expenditure and cardiometabolic health in three rural Kenyan populations

Jerry C Lee, Kate Westgate, Michael K Boit, David L Mwaniki, Festus K Kiplamai, Henrik Friis, Inge Tetens, Dirk L Christensen*, Soren Brage

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Physical activity is beneficial for metabolic health but the extent to which this may differ by ethnicity is still unclear. Here, the objective was to characterize the association between physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and cardiometabolic risk among the Luo, Kamba, and Maasai ethnic groups of rural Kenya.

METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of 1084 rural Kenyans, free-living PAEE was objectively measured using individually-calibrated heart rate and movement sensing. A clustered metabolic syndrome risk score (zMS) was developed by averaging the sex-specific z-scores of five risk components measuring central adiposity, blood pressure, lipid levels, glucose tolerance, and insulin resistance.

RESULTS: zMS was 0.08 (-0.09; -0.06) SD lower for every 10 kJ/kg/day difference in PAEE after adjustment for age and sex; this association was modified by ethnicity (interaction with PAEE P < 0.05). When adjusted for adiposity, each 10 kJ/kg/day difference in PAEE was predicted to lower zMS by 0.04 (-0.05, -0.03) SD, without evidence of interaction by ethnicity. The Maasai were predicted to have higher cardiometabolic risk than the Kamba and Luo at every quintile of PAEE, with a strong dose-dependent decreasing trend among all ethnicities.

CONCLUSION: Free-living PAEE is strongly inversely associated with cardiometabolic risk in rural Kenyans. Differences between ethnic groups in this association were observed but were explained by differences in central adiposity. Therefore, targeted interventions to increase PAEE are more likely to be effective in subgroups with high central adiposity, such as Maasai with low levels of PAEE.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere23199
JournalAmerican Journal of Human Biology
Volume31
Issue number1
Number of pages9
ISSN1042-0533
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Cite this

Lee, J. C., Westgate, K., Boit, M. K., Mwaniki, D. L., Kiplamai, F. K., Friis, H., ... Brage, S. (2019). Physical activity energy expenditure and cardiometabolic health in three rural Kenyan populations. American Journal of Human Biology, 31(1), [e23199]. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23199
Lee, Jerry C ; Westgate, Kate ; Boit, Michael K ; Mwaniki, David L ; Kiplamai, Festus K ; Friis, Henrik ; Tetens, Inge ; Christensen, Dirk L ; Brage, Soren. / Physical activity energy expenditure and cardiometabolic health in three rural Kenyan populations. In: American Journal of Human Biology. 2019 ; Vol. 31, No. 1.
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title = "Physical activity energy expenditure and cardiometabolic health in three rural Kenyan populations",
abstract = "OBJECTIVES: Physical activity is beneficial for metabolic health but the extent to which this may differ by ethnicity is still unclear. Here, the objective was to characterize the association between physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and cardiometabolic risk among the Luo, Kamba, and Maasai ethnic groups of rural Kenya.METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of 1084 rural Kenyans, free-living PAEE was objectively measured using individually-calibrated heart rate and movement sensing. A clustered metabolic syndrome risk score (zMS) was developed by averaging the sex-specific z-scores of five risk components measuring central adiposity, blood pressure, lipid levels, glucose tolerance, and insulin resistance.RESULTS: zMS was 0.08 (-0.09; -0.06) SD lower for every 10 kJ/kg/day difference in PAEE after adjustment for age and sex; this association was modified by ethnicity (interaction with PAEE P < 0.05). When adjusted for adiposity, each 10 kJ/kg/day difference in PAEE was predicted to lower zMS by 0.04 (-0.05, -0.03) SD, without evidence of interaction by ethnicity. The Maasai were predicted to have higher cardiometabolic risk than the Kamba and Luo at every quintile of PAEE, with a strong dose-dependent decreasing trend among all ethnicities.CONCLUSION: Free-living PAEE is strongly inversely associated with cardiometabolic risk in rural Kenyans. Differences between ethnic groups in this association were observed but were explained by differences in central adiposity. Therefore, targeted interventions to increase PAEE are more likely to be effective in subgroups with high central adiposity, such as Maasai with low levels of PAEE.",
author = "Lee, {Jerry C} and Kate Westgate and Boit, {Michael K} and Mwaniki, {David L} and Kiplamai, {Festus K} and Henrik Friis and Inge Tetens and Christensen, {Dirk L} and Soren Brage",
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Lee, JC, Westgate, K, Boit, MK, Mwaniki, DL, Kiplamai, FK, Friis, H, Tetens, I, Christensen, DL & Brage, S 2019, 'Physical activity energy expenditure and cardiometabolic health in three rural Kenyan populations', American Journal of Human Biology, vol. 31, no. 1, e23199. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23199

Physical activity energy expenditure and cardiometabolic health in three rural Kenyan populations. / Lee, Jerry C; Westgate, Kate; Boit, Michael K; Mwaniki, David L; Kiplamai, Festus K; Friis, Henrik; Tetens, Inge; Christensen, Dirk L; Brage, Soren.

In: American Journal of Human Biology, Vol. 31, No. 1, e23199, 2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Physical activity energy expenditure and cardiometabolic health in three rural Kenyan populations

AU - Lee, Jerry C

AU - Westgate, Kate

AU - Boit, Michael K

AU - Mwaniki, David L

AU - Kiplamai, Festus K

AU - Friis, Henrik

AU - Tetens, Inge

AU - Christensen, Dirk L

AU - Brage, Soren

N1 - © 2018 The Authors. American Journal of Human Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - OBJECTIVES: Physical activity is beneficial for metabolic health but the extent to which this may differ by ethnicity is still unclear. Here, the objective was to characterize the association between physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and cardiometabolic risk among the Luo, Kamba, and Maasai ethnic groups of rural Kenya.METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of 1084 rural Kenyans, free-living PAEE was objectively measured using individually-calibrated heart rate and movement sensing. A clustered metabolic syndrome risk score (zMS) was developed by averaging the sex-specific z-scores of five risk components measuring central adiposity, blood pressure, lipid levels, glucose tolerance, and insulin resistance.RESULTS: zMS was 0.08 (-0.09; -0.06) SD lower for every 10 kJ/kg/day difference in PAEE after adjustment for age and sex; this association was modified by ethnicity (interaction with PAEE P < 0.05). When adjusted for adiposity, each 10 kJ/kg/day difference in PAEE was predicted to lower zMS by 0.04 (-0.05, -0.03) SD, without evidence of interaction by ethnicity. The Maasai were predicted to have higher cardiometabolic risk than the Kamba and Luo at every quintile of PAEE, with a strong dose-dependent decreasing trend among all ethnicities.CONCLUSION: Free-living PAEE is strongly inversely associated with cardiometabolic risk in rural Kenyans. Differences between ethnic groups in this association were observed but were explained by differences in central adiposity. Therefore, targeted interventions to increase PAEE are more likely to be effective in subgroups with high central adiposity, such as Maasai with low levels of PAEE.

AB - OBJECTIVES: Physical activity is beneficial for metabolic health but the extent to which this may differ by ethnicity is still unclear. Here, the objective was to characterize the association between physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and cardiometabolic risk among the Luo, Kamba, and Maasai ethnic groups of rural Kenya.METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of 1084 rural Kenyans, free-living PAEE was objectively measured using individually-calibrated heart rate and movement sensing. A clustered metabolic syndrome risk score (zMS) was developed by averaging the sex-specific z-scores of five risk components measuring central adiposity, blood pressure, lipid levels, glucose tolerance, and insulin resistance.RESULTS: zMS was 0.08 (-0.09; -0.06) SD lower for every 10 kJ/kg/day difference in PAEE after adjustment for age and sex; this association was modified by ethnicity (interaction with PAEE P < 0.05). When adjusted for adiposity, each 10 kJ/kg/day difference in PAEE was predicted to lower zMS by 0.04 (-0.05, -0.03) SD, without evidence of interaction by ethnicity. The Maasai were predicted to have higher cardiometabolic risk than the Kamba and Luo at every quintile of PAEE, with a strong dose-dependent decreasing trend among all ethnicities.CONCLUSION: Free-living PAEE is strongly inversely associated with cardiometabolic risk in rural Kenyans. Differences between ethnic groups in this association were observed but were explained by differences in central adiposity. Therefore, targeted interventions to increase PAEE are more likely to be effective in subgroups with high central adiposity, such as Maasai with low levels of PAEE.

U2 - 10.1002/ajhb.23199

DO - 10.1002/ajhb.23199

M3 - Journal article

VL - 31

JO - American Journal of Human Biology

JF - American Journal of Human Biology

SN - 1042-0533

IS - 1

M1 - e23199

ER -