Phylogeny of xerophilic aspergilli (subgenus Aspergillus ) and taxonomic revision of section Restricti

F. Sklenář, Ž. Jurjević, P. Zalar, Jens Christian Frisvad, C.M. Visagie, M. Kolařík, J. Houbraken, A.J. Chen, N. Yilmaz, K.A. Seifert, M. Coton, F. Déniel, N. Gunde-Cimerman, R.A. Samson, S.W. Peterson, V. Hubka

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Abstract

Aspergillus section Restricti together with sister section Aspergillus (formerly Eurotium) comprises xerophilic species, that are able to grow on substrates with low water activity and in extreme environments. We adressed the monophyly of both sections within subgenus Aspergillus and applied a multidisciplinary approach for definition of species boundaries in sect. Restricti. The monophyly of sections Aspergillus and Restricti was tested on a set of 102 isolates comprising all currently accepted species and was strongly supported by Maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inferrence (BI) analysis based on β-tubulin (benA), calmodulin (CaM) and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) loci. More than 300 strains belonging to sect. Restricti from various isolation sources and four continents were characterized by DNA sequencing, and 193 isolates were selected for phylogenetic analyses and phenotypic studies. Species delimitation methods based on multispecies coalescent model were employed on DNA sequences from four loci, i.e., ID region of rDNA (ITS + 28S), CaM, benA and RPB2, and supported recognition of 21 species, including 14 new. All these species were also strongly supported in ML and BI analyses. All recognised species can be reliably identified by all four examined genetic loci. Phenotype analysis was performed to support the delimitation of new species and includes colony characteristics on seven cultivation media incubated at several temperatures, growth on an osmotic gradient (six media with NaCl concentration from 0 to 25 %) and analysis of morphology including scanning electron microscopy. The micromorphology of conidial heads, vesicle dimensions, temperature profiles and growth parameters in osmotic gradient were useful criteria for species identification.
The vast majority of species in sect. Restricti produce asperglaucide, asperphenamate or both in contrast to species in sect. Aspergillus. Mycophenolic acid was detected for the first time in at least six members of the section. The ascomata of A. halophilicus do not contain auroglaucin, epiheveadride or flavoglaucin which are common in sect. Aspergillus, but shares the echinulins with sect. Aspergillus.
Original languageEnglish
JournalStudies in Mycology
Volume88
Pages (from-to)161-236
ISSN0166-0616
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Bibliographical note

Open Access funded by CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre
Under a Creative Commons license

Keywords

  • Aspergillus restrictus
  • Aspergillus penicillioides
  • Eurotium
  • Food spoilage
  • Linear discriminant analysis
  • Multigene phylogeny
  • Multispecies coalescent model
  • Indoor fungi
  • Sick building syndrome
  • Xerophilic fungi

Cite this

Sklenář, F. ; Jurjević, Ž. ; Zalar, P. ; Frisvad, Jens Christian ; Visagie, C.M. ; Kolařík, M. ; Houbraken, J. ; Chen, A.J. ; Yilmaz, N. ; Seifert, K.A. ; Coton, M. ; Déniel, F. ; Gunde-Cimerman, N. ; Samson, R.A. ; Peterson, S.W. ; Hubka, V. / Phylogeny of xerophilic aspergilli (subgenus Aspergillus ) and taxonomic revision of section Restricti. In: Studies in Mycology. 2017 ; Vol. 88. pp. 161-236.
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abstract = "Aspergillus section Restricti together with sister section Aspergillus (formerly Eurotium) comprises xerophilic species, that are able to grow on substrates with low water activity and in extreme environments. We adressed the monophyly of both sections within subgenus Aspergillus and applied a multidisciplinary approach for definition of species boundaries in sect. Restricti. The monophyly of sections Aspergillus and Restricti was tested on a set of 102 isolates comprising all currently accepted species and was strongly supported by Maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inferrence (BI) analysis based on β-tubulin (benA), calmodulin (CaM) and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) loci. More than 300 strains belonging to sect. Restricti from various isolation sources and four continents were characterized by DNA sequencing, and 193 isolates were selected for phylogenetic analyses and phenotypic studies. Species delimitation methods based on multispecies coalescent model were employed on DNA sequences from four loci, i.e., ID region of rDNA (ITS + 28S), CaM, benA and RPB2, and supported recognition of 21 species, including 14 new. All these species were also strongly supported in ML and BI analyses. All recognised species can be reliably identified by all four examined genetic loci. Phenotype analysis was performed to support the delimitation of new species and includes colony characteristics on seven cultivation media incubated at several temperatures, growth on an osmotic gradient (six media with NaCl concentration from 0 to 25 {\%}) and analysis of morphology including scanning electron microscopy. The micromorphology of conidial heads, vesicle dimensions, temperature profiles and growth parameters in osmotic gradient were useful criteria for species identification.The vast majority of species in sect. Restricti produce asperglaucide, asperphenamate or both in contrast to species in sect. Aspergillus. Mycophenolic acid was detected for the first time in at least six members of the section. The ascomata of A. halophilicus do not contain auroglaucin, epiheveadride or flavoglaucin which are common in sect. Aspergillus, but shares the echinulins with sect. Aspergillus.",
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author = "F. Sklen{\'a}ř and Ž. Jurjević and P. Zalar and Frisvad, {Jens Christian} and C.M. Visagie and M. Kolař{\'i}k and J. Houbraken and A.J. Chen and N. Yilmaz and K.A. Seifert and M. Coton and F. D{\'e}niel and N. Gunde-Cimerman and R.A. Samson and S.W. Peterson and V. Hubka",
note = "Open Access funded by CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre Under a Creative Commons license",
year = "2017",
doi = "10.1016/j.simyco.2017.09.002",
language = "English",
volume = "88",
pages = "161--236",
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Sklenář, F, Jurjević, Ž, Zalar, P, Frisvad, JC, Visagie, CM, Kolařík, M, Houbraken, J, Chen, AJ, Yilmaz, N, Seifert, KA, Coton, M, Déniel, F, Gunde-Cimerman, N, Samson, RA, Peterson, SW & Hubka, V 2017, 'Phylogeny of xerophilic aspergilli (subgenus Aspergillus ) and taxonomic revision of section Restricti', Studies in Mycology, vol. 88, pp. 161-236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.simyco.2017.09.002

Phylogeny of xerophilic aspergilli (subgenus Aspergillus ) and taxonomic revision of section Restricti. / Sklenář, F.; Jurjević, Ž.; Zalar, P.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Visagie, C.M.; Kolařík, M.; Houbraken, J.; Chen, A.J.; Yilmaz, N.; Seifert, K.A.; Coton, M.; Déniel, F.; Gunde-Cimerman, N.; Samson, R.A.; Peterson, S.W.; Hubka, V.

In: Studies in Mycology, Vol. 88, 2017, p. 161-236.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Phylogeny of xerophilic aspergilli (subgenus Aspergillus ) and taxonomic revision of section Restricti

AU - Sklenář, F.

AU - Jurjević, Ž.

AU - Zalar, P.

AU - Frisvad, Jens Christian

AU - Visagie, C.M.

AU - Kolařík, M.

AU - Houbraken, J.

AU - Chen, A.J.

AU - Yilmaz, N.

AU - Seifert, K.A.

AU - Coton, M.

AU - Déniel, F.

AU - Gunde-Cimerman, N.

AU - Samson, R.A.

AU - Peterson, S.W.

AU - Hubka, V.

N1 - Open Access funded by CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre Under a Creative Commons license

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - Aspergillus section Restricti together with sister section Aspergillus (formerly Eurotium) comprises xerophilic species, that are able to grow on substrates with low water activity and in extreme environments. We adressed the monophyly of both sections within subgenus Aspergillus and applied a multidisciplinary approach for definition of species boundaries in sect. Restricti. The monophyly of sections Aspergillus and Restricti was tested on a set of 102 isolates comprising all currently accepted species and was strongly supported by Maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inferrence (BI) analysis based on β-tubulin (benA), calmodulin (CaM) and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) loci. More than 300 strains belonging to sect. Restricti from various isolation sources and four continents were characterized by DNA sequencing, and 193 isolates were selected for phylogenetic analyses and phenotypic studies. Species delimitation methods based on multispecies coalescent model were employed on DNA sequences from four loci, i.e., ID region of rDNA (ITS + 28S), CaM, benA and RPB2, and supported recognition of 21 species, including 14 new. All these species were also strongly supported in ML and BI analyses. All recognised species can be reliably identified by all four examined genetic loci. Phenotype analysis was performed to support the delimitation of new species and includes colony characteristics on seven cultivation media incubated at several temperatures, growth on an osmotic gradient (six media with NaCl concentration from 0 to 25 %) and analysis of morphology including scanning electron microscopy. The micromorphology of conidial heads, vesicle dimensions, temperature profiles and growth parameters in osmotic gradient were useful criteria for species identification.The vast majority of species in sect. Restricti produce asperglaucide, asperphenamate or both in contrast to species in sect. Aspergillus. Mycophenolic acid was detected for the first time in at least six members of the section. The ascomata of A. halophilicus do not contain auroglaucin, epiheveadride or flavoglaucin which are common in sect. Aspergillus, but shares the echinulins with sect. Aspergillus.

AB - Aspergillus section Restricti together with sister section Aspergillus (formerly Eurotium) comprises xerophilic species, that are able to grow on substrates with low water activity and in extreme environments. We adressed the monophyly of both sections within subgenus Aspergillus and applied a multidisciplinary approach for definition of species boundaries in sect. Restricti. The monophyly of sections Aspergillus and Restricti was tested on a set of 102 isolates comprising all currently accepted species and was strongly supported by Maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inferrence (BI) analysis based on β-tubulin (benA), calmodulin (CaM) and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) loci. More than 300 strains belonging to sect. Restricti from various isolation sources and four continents were characterized by DNA sequencing, and 193 isolates were selected for phylogenetic analyses and phenotypic studies. Species delimitation methods based on multispecies coalescent model were employed on DNA sequences from four loci, i.e., ID region of rDNA (ITS + 28S), CaM, benA and RPB2, and supported recognition of 21 species, including 14 new. All these species were also strongly supported in ML and BI analyses. All recognised species can be reliably identified by all four examined genetic loci. Phenotype analysis was performed to support the delimitation of new species and includes colony characteristics on seven cultivation media incubated at several temperatures, growth on an osmotic gradient (six media with NaCl concentration from 0 to 25 %) and analysis of morphology including scanning electron microscopy. The micromorphology of conidial heads, vesicle dimensions, temperature profiles and growth parameters in osmotic gradient were useful criteria for species identification.The vast majority of species in sect. Restricti produce asperglaucide, asperphenamate or both in contrast to species in sect. Aspergillus. Mycophenolic acid was detected for the first time in at least six members of the section. The ascomata of A. halophilicus do not contain auroglaucin, epiheveadride or flavoglaucin which are common in sect. Aspergillus, but shares the echinulins with sect. Aspergillus.

KW - Aspergillus restrictus

KW - Aspergillus penicillioides

KW - Eurotium

KW - Food spoilage

KW - Linear discriminant analysis

KW - Multigene phylogeny

KW - Multispecies coalescent model

KW - Indoor fungi

KW - Sick building syndrome

KW - Xerophilic fungi

U2 - 10.1016/j.simyco.2017.09.002

DO - 10.1016/j.simyco.2017.09.002

M3 - Journal article

VL - 88

SP - 161

EP - 236

JO - Studies in Mycology

JF - Studies in Mycology

SN - 0166-0616

ER -