Photovoltage versus microprobe sheet resistance measurements on ultrashallow structures

T. Clarysse, A. Moussa, B. Parmentier, J. Bogdanowicz, W. Vandervorst, H. Bender, M. Pfeffer, M. Schellenberger, Peter Folmer Nielsen, Sune Thorsteinsson, Rong Lin, Dirch Hjorth Petersen

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    Earlier work [T. Clarysse , Mater. Sci. Eng., B 114-115, 166 (2004); T. Clarysse , Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 912, 197 (2006)] has shown that only few contemporary tools are able to measure reliably (within the international technology roadmap for semiconductors specifications) sheet resistances on ultrashallow (sub-50-nm) chemical-vapor-deposited layers [T. Clarysse , Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 912, 197 (2006)], especially in the presence of medium/highly doped underlying layers (representative for well/halo implants). Here the authors examine more closely the sheet resistance anomalies which have recently been observed between junction photovoltage (JPV) based tools and a micrometer-resolution four-point probe (M4PP) tool on a variety of difficult, state-of-the-art sub-32-nm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor structures (low energy and cluster implants, with/without halo, flash- and laser-based millisecond anneal). Conventional four-point probe tools fail on almost all of these samples due to excessive probe penetration, whereas in several cases variable probe spacing (using a conventional spreading resistance probe tool) [T. Clarysse , Mater. Sci. Eng. R. 47, 123 (2004)] still gives useful values to within about 20%-35% due to its limited probe penetration (5-10 nm at 5 g load). M4PP measurements give systematically a sensible and reproducible result. This is also the case for JPV-based sheet resistance measurements, although these appear to be prone to correct calibration procedures and are not designed for the characterization of multijunctions. Moreover, in a significant number of cases, residual damage and/or unexpected junction-leakage currents appear to induce a strong signal reduction, limiting the applicability of the JPV technique. This has been further investigated by transmission-electron microscopy, high carrier-injection photomodulated optical-reflectance, and Synopsis-Sentaurus device simulations.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalJournal of Vacuum Science and Technology. Part B. Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures
    Issue number1C
    Pages (from-to)8-14
    Publication statusPublished - 2010


    • transmission electron microscopy
    • electron probe analysis
    • electric resistance measurement
    • CMOS integrated circuits
    • calibration
    • chemical vapour deposition


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