Photovoltage versus microprobe sheet resistance measurements on ultrashallow structures

T. Clarysse, A. Moussa, B. Parmentier, J. Bogdanowicz, W. Vandervorst, H. Bender, M. Pfeffer, M. Schellenberger, Peter Folmer Nielsen, Sune Thorsteinsson, Rong Lin, Dirch Hjorth Petersen

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

    Abstract

    Earlier work [T. Clarysse , Mater. Sci. Eng., B 114-115, 166 (2004); T. Clarysse , Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 912, 197 (2006)] has shown that only few contemporary tools are able to measure reliably (within the international technology roadmap for semiconductors specifications) sheet resistances on ultrashallow (sub-50-nm) chemical-vapor-deposited layers [T. Clarysse , Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 912, 197 (2006)], especially in the presence of medium/highly doped underlying layers (representative for well/halo implants). Here the authors examine more closely the sheet resistance anomalies which have recently been observed between junction photovoltage (JPV) based tools and a micrometer-resolution four-point probe (M4PP) tool on a variety of difficult, state-of-the-art sub-32-nm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor structures (low energy and cluster implants, with/without halo, flash- and laser-based millisecond anneal). Conventional four-point probe tools fail on almost all of these samples due to excessive probe penetration, whereas in several cases variable probe spacing (using a conventional spreading resistance probe tool) [T. Clarysse , Mater. Sci. Eng. R. 47, 123 (2004)] still gives useful values to within about 20%-35% due to its limited probe penetration (5-10 nm at 5 g load). M4PP measurements give systematically a sensible and reproducible result. This is also the case for JPV-based sheet resistance measurements, although these appear to be prone to correct calibration procedures and are not designed for the characterization of multijunctions. Moreover, in a significant number of cases, residual damage and/or unexpected junction-leakage currents appear to induce a strong signal reduction, limiting the applicability of the JPV technique. This has been further investigated by transmission-electron microscopy, high carrier-injection photomodulated optical-reflectance, and Synopsis-Sentaurus device simulations.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalJournal of Vacuum Science and Technology. Part B. Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures
    Volume28
    Issue number1C
    Pages (from-to)8-14
    ISSN1071-1023
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2010

    Keywords

    • transmission electron microscopy
    • electron probe analysis
    • electric resistance measurement
    • CMOS integrated circuits
    • calibration
    • chemical vapour deposition

    Cite this

    Clarysse, T. ; Moussa, A. ; Parmentier, B. ; Bogdanowicz, J. ; Vandervorst, W. ; Bender, H. ; Pfeffer, M. ; Schellenberger, M. ; Nielsen, Peter Folmer ; Thorsteinsson, Sune ; Lin, Rong ; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth. / Photovoltage versus microprobe sheet resistance measurements on ultrashallow structures. In: Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. Part B. Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures. 2010 ; Vol. 28, No. 1C. pp. 8-14.
    @article{5784602458644213ac7edb883abf9584,
    title = "Photovoltage versus microprobe sheet resistance measurements on ultrashallow structures",
    abstract = "Earlier work [T. Clarysse , Mater. Sci. Eng., B 114-115, 166 (2004); T. Clarysse , Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 912, 197 (2006)] has shown that only few contemporary tools are able to measure reliably (within the international technology roadmap for semiconductors specifications) sheet resistances on ultrashallow (sub-50-nm) chemical-vapor-deposited layers [T. Clarysse , Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 912, 197 (2006)], especially in the presence of medium/highly doped underlying layers (representative for well/halo implants). Here the authors examine more closely the sheet resistance anomalies which have recently been observed between junction photovoltage (JPV) based tools and a micrometer-resolution four-point probe (M4PP) tool on a variety of difficult, state-of-the-art sub-32-nm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor structures (low energy and cluster implants, with/without halo, flash- and laser-based millisecond anneal). Conventional four-point probe tools fail on almost all of these samples due to excessive probe penetration, whereas in several cases variable probe spacing (using a conventional spreading resistance probe tool) [T. Clarysse , Mater. Sci. Eng. R. 47, 123 (2004)] still gives useful values to within about 20{\%}-35{\%} due to its limited probe penetration (5-10 nm at 5 g load). M4PP measurements give systematically a sensible and reproducible result. This is also the case for JPV-based sheet resistance measurements, although these appear to be prone to correct calibration procedures and are not designed for the characterization of multijunctions. Moreover, in a significant number of cases, residual damage and/or unexpected junction-leakage currents appear to induce a strong signal reduction, limiting the applicability of the JPV technique. This has been further investigated by transmission-electron microscopy, high carrier-injection photomodulated optical-reflectance, and Synopsis-Sentaurus device simulations.",
    keywords = "transmission electron microscopy, electron probe analysis, electric resistance measurement, CMOS integrated circuits, calibration, chemical vapour deposition",
    author = "T. Clarysse and A. Moussa and B. Parmentier and J. Bogdanowicz and W. Vandervorst and H. Bender and M. Pfeffer and M. Schellenberger and Nielsen, {Peter Folmer} and Sune Thorsteinsson and Rong Lin and Petersen, {Dirch Hjorth}",
    year = "2010",
    doi = "10.1116/1.3292637",
    language = "English",
    volume = "28",
    pages = "8--14",
    journal = "Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. Part B. Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures",
    issn = "1071-1023",
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    Clarysse, T, Moussa, A, Parmentier, B, Bogdanowicz, J, Vandervorst, W, Bender, H, Pfeffer, M, Schellenberger, M, Nielsen, PF, Thorsteinsson, S, Lin, R & Petersen, DH 2010, 'Photovoltage versus microprobe sheet resistance measurements on ultrashallow structures', Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. Part B. Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures, vol. 28, no. 1C, pp. 8-14. https://doi.org/10.1116/1.3292637

    Photovoltage versus microprobe sheet resistance measurements on ultrashallow structures. / Clarysse, T.; Moussa, A.; Parmentier, B.; Bogdanowicz, J.; Vandervorst, W.; Bender, H.; Pfeffer, M.; Schellenberger, M.; Nielsen, Peter Folmer; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Lin, Rong; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth.

    In: Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. Part B. Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures, Vol. 28, No. 1C, 2010, p. 8-14.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Photovoltage versus microprobe sheet resistance measurements on ultrashallow structures

    AU - Clarysse, T.

    AU - Moussa, A.

    AU - Parmentier, B.

    AU - Bogdanowicz, J.

    AU - Vandervorst, W.

    AU - Bender, H.

    AU - Pfeffer, M.

    AU - Schellenberger, M.

    AU - Nielsen, Peter Folmer

    AU - Thorsteinsson, Sune

    AU - Lin, Rong

    AU - Petersen, Dirch Hjorth

    PY - 2010

    Y1 - 2010

    N2 - Earlier work [T. Clarysse , Mater. Sci. Eng., B 114-115, 166 (2004); T. Clarysse , Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 912, 197 (2006)] has shown that only few contemporary tools are able to measure reliably (within the international technology roadmap for semiconductors specifications) sheet resistances on ultrashallow (sub-50-nm) chemical-vapor-deposited layers [T. Clarysse , Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 912, 197 (2006)], especially in the presence of medium/highly doped underlying layers (representative for well/halo implants). Here the authors examine more closely the sheet resistance anomalies which have recently been observed between junction photovoltage (JPV) based tools and a micrometer-resolution four-point probe (M4PP) tool on a variety of difficult, state-of-the-art sub-32-nm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor structures (low energy and cluster implants, with/without halo, flash- and laser-based millisecond anneal). Conventional four-point probe tools fail on almost all of these samples due to excessive probe penetration, whereas in several cases variable probe spacing (using a conventional spreading resistance probe tool) [T. Clarysse , Mater. Sci. Eng. R. 47, 123 (2004)] still gives useful values to within about 20%-35% due to its limited probe penetration (5-10 nm at 5 g load). M4PP measurements give systematically a sensible and reproducible result. This is also the case for JPV-based sheet resistance measurements, although these appear to be prone to correct calibration procedures and are not designed for the characterization of multijunctions. Moreover, in a significant number of cases, residual damage and/or unexpected junction-leakage currents appear to induce a strong signal reduction, limiting the applicability of the JPV technique. This has been further investigated by transmission-electron microscopy, high carrier-injection photomodulated optical-reflectance, and Synopsis-Sentaurus device simulations.

    AB - Earlier work [T. Clarysse , Mater. Sci. Eng., B 114-115, 166 (2004); T. Clarysse , Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 912, 197 (2006)] has shown that only few contemporary tools are able to measure reliably (within the international technology roadmap for semiconductors specifications) sheet resistances on ultrashallow (sub-50-nm) chemical-vapor-deposited layers [T. Clarysse , Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 912, 197 (2006)], especially in the presence of medium/highly doped underlying layers (representative for well/halo implants). Here the authors examine more closely the sheet resistance anomalies which have recently been observed between junction photovoltage (JPV) based tools and a micrometer-resolution four-point probe (M4PP) tool on a variety of difficult, state-of-the-art sub-32-nm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor structures (low energy and cluster implants, with/without halo, flash- and laser-based millisecond anneal). Conventional four-point probe tools fail on almost all of these samples due to excessive probe penetration, whereas in several cases variable probe spacing (using a conventional spreading resistance probe tool) [T. Clarysse , Mater. Sci. Eng. R. 47, 123 (2004)] still gives useful values to within about 20%-35% due to its limited probe penetration (5-10 nm at 5 g load). M4PP measurements give systematically a sensible and reproducible result. This is also the case for JPV-based sheet resistance measurements, although these appear to be prone to correct calibration procedures and are not designed for the characterization of multijunctions. Moreover, in a significant number of cases, residual damage and/or unexpected junction-leakage currents appear to induce a strong signal reduction, limiting the applicability of the JPV technique. This has been further investigated by transmission-electron microscopy, high carrier-injection photomodulated optical-reflectance, and Synopsis-Sentaurus device simulations.

    KW - transmission electron microscopy

    KW - electron probe analysis

    KW - electric resistance measurement

    KW - CMOS integrated circuits

    KW - calibration

    KW - chemical vapour deposition

    U2 - 10.1116/1.3292637

    DO - 10.1116/1.3292637

    M3 - Journal article

    VL - 28

    SP - 8

    EP - 14

    JO - Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. Part B. Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures

    JF - Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. Part B. Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures

    SN - 1071-1023

    IS - 1C

    ER -