In this article, we report Si-based nanohole array structures for biosensing applications. These photonic crystal structures were fabricated by the combination of deep-UV lithography and dry etch techniques. The fabricated structures support guided modes for near-infrared (IR) wavelengths, which can be used for the detection of analyte molecules bound to the surface. The sensing performance of the structure was evaluated in terms of surface and bulk refractive index sensitivity by spectroscopic reflection measurement. Bulk refractive index sensitivity (BRIS) was evaluted in solution with glycerol diluted in deionized (DI) water and found to be 139 nm/RIU (refractive index unit). To study surface sensitivity, oxide layers with different thicknesses were employed as as model analytes. The oxides were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on top of the structure. Moreover, an experiment with another model analyte present in solution, avidin, using various concentrations in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solutions allowed to estimate the limit of detection (LoD = 236 ng/mL) and quantification (LoQ = 9367 ng/mL) of our device.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of 2022 Sixteenth International Congress on Artificial Materials for Novel Wave Phenomena
Number of pages3
Publication date17 Sept 2022
Article number9920922
ISBN (Print)978-1-6654-6585-4
Publication statusPublished - 17 Sept 2022
Event16th International Congress on Artificial Materials for Novel Wave Phenomena - University of Siena, Siena, Italy
Duration: 12 Sept 202217 Sept 2022
Conference number: 16


Conference16th International Congress on Artificial Materials for Novel Wave Phenomena
LocationUniversity of Siena


  • Analytical models
  • Sensitivity
  • Surface waves
  • Refractive index
  • Photonic crystals
  • Silicon
  • Nanoscale devices


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