Photon superbunching in cathodoluminescence of excitons in WS2 monolayer

Saskia Fiedler, Sergii Morozov, Leonid Iliushyn, Sergejs Boroviks, Martin Thomaschewski, Jianfang Wang, Timothy J. Booth, Nicolas Stenger, Christian Wolff, N. Asger Mortensen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Cathodoluminescence spectroscopy in conjunction with second-order auto-correlation measurements of g 2 ( τ ) allows to extensively study the synchronization of photon emitters in low-dimensional structures. Co-existing excitons in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers provide a great source of identical photon emitters which can be simultaneously excited by an electron. Here, we demonstrate large photon bunching with g 2 ( 0 ) up to 156 ± 16 of a tungsten disulfide monolayer (WS2), exhibiting a strong dependence on the electron-beam current. To further improve the excitation synchronization and the electron-emitter interaction, we show exemplary that the careful selection of a simple and compact geometry—a thin, monocrystalline gold nanodisk—can be used to realize a record-high bunching g 2 ( 0 ) of up to 2152 ± 236 . This approach to control the electron excitation of excitons in a WS2 monolayer allows for the synchronization of photon emitters in an ensemble, which is important to further advance light information and computing technologies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number021002
Journal2D materials
Issue number2
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors gratefully acknowledge the experimental support of V Zenin. N A M is a VILLUM Investigator supported by VILLUM FONDEN (Grant No. 16498). S M acknowledges funding from the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Action (Grant Agreement No. 101032967). C W acknowledges funding from a MULTIPLY fellowship under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie COFUND Action (Grant Agreement No. 713694). The Center for Nanostructured Graphene (CNG) is sponsored by the Danish National Research Foundation (Project No. DNRF103). The Center for Polariton-driven Light–Matter Interactions (POLIMA) is sponsored by the Danish National Research Foundation (Project No. DNRF165).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing Ltd.


  • Cathodoluminescence
  • Electron-beam excitation
  • Hexagonal boron nitride
  • Photon superbunching
  • Transition metal dichalcogenide monolayer
  • van der Waals heterostructures


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