The research aims to study phospholipids (PL) classes and molecular species of large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) roe. Both gas chromatographymass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) were utilized to analyze and identify the PLs fatty acids compositions and classes in the P. crocea roe, respectively. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5) account for 35.0% and 6.9% of the PLs. Phosphatidylcholines (PC), lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC), phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) and phosphatidylinositols (PI) account for 76.36 ± 0.62%, 12.30 ± 0.55%, 9.12 ± 0.02% and 1.09 ± 0.01% of the total PLs, respectively. In addition, the PLs molecular species were characterized by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadruple-time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). A total of 92 PLs molecular species was identified, including 49 PCs, 13 PEs, 10 phosphatidic acids (PAs), 13 phosphatidylserines (PSs), 3 phosphatidylglycerols (PGs), 2 sphingomyelins (SMs), and 2 PIs of the P. crocea roe.