A plasmid-mediated mechanism of bacterial resistance to polymyxin is a serious threat to public health worldwide. The present study aimed to determine the occurrence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance genes and to conduct the molecular characterization of mcr-positive Escherichia coli strains isolated from Polish poultry. In this study, 318 E. coli strains were characterized by the prevalence of mcr1-mcr5 genes, antimicrobial susceptibility testing by minimal inhibitory concentration method, the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes was screened by PCR, and the biofilm formation ability was tested using the crystal violet staining method. Genetic relatedness of mcr-1-positive E. coli strains was evaluated by multilocus sequence typing method. Among the 318 E. coli isolates, 17 (5.35%) harbored the mcr-1 gene. High antimicrobial resistance rates were observed for ampicillin (100%), tetracycline (88.24%), and chloramphenicol (82.35%). All mcr-1-positive E. coli strains were multidrug-resistant, and as many as 88.24% of the isolates contained the blaTEM gene, tetracycline (tetA and tetB), and sulfonamide (sul1, sul2, and sul3) resistance genes. Additionally, 41.18% of multidrug-resistant, mcr-1-positive E. coli isolates were moderate biofilm producers, while the rest of the strains showed weak biofilm production. Nine different sequence types were identified, and the dominant ST was ST93 (29.41%), followed by ST117 (17.65%), ST156 (11.76%), ST 8979 (11.76%), ST744 (5.88%), and ST10 (5.88%). Moreover, the new ST was identified in this study. Our results showed a low occurrence of mcr-1-positive E. coli strains isolated from Polish poultry; however, all the isolated strains were resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents and were able to form biofilms at low or medium level.