The phasing of respiratory and assimilatory capacity differed within forest types: for temperate coniferous forests seasonal uptake and release capacities are in phase, for temperate deciduous and boreal coniferous forests, release was delayed compared to uptake. According to seasonal pattern of maximum nighttime release (evaluated over 15-day periods. F-max) the study sites can be grouped in four classes: (1) boreal and high altitude conifers and grasslands: (2) temperate deciduous and temperate conifers; (3) tundra and crops; (4) evergreen Mediterranean and tropical forest,,, Similar results are found for maximum daytime uptake (F-min) and the integral net carbon flux, but temperate deciduous forests fall into class 1.
For forests, seasonal amplitudes of F-max and F-min increased in the order tropical < Mediterranean and temperate coniferous < temperate deciduous and boreal forests, and the pattern seems relatively stable for these groups. The seasonal amplitudes of F-max and F-min are largest for managed grasslands and crops. Largest observed values of F-min varied between -48 and -2 mumol m(-2) s(-1), decreasing in the order C-4-crops > C-3-crops > temperate deciduous forests > temperate conifers > boreal conifers > tundra ecosystems.
Due to data restrictions, our analysis centered mainly on Northern Hemisphere temperate and boreal forest ecosystems. Grasslands, crops, Mediterranean ecosystems, and rainforests are under-represented. as are savanna systems, wooded grassland, shrubland, or year-round measurements in tundra systems. For regional or global estimates of carbon sequestration potentials, future investigations of eddy covariance should expand in these systems. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.