Perspectives on green hydrogen in Europe—during an energy crisis and towards future climate neutrality

Marie Münster*, Rasmus Bramstoft, Ioannis Kountouris, Lissy Langer, Dogan Keles, Ruth Schlautmann, Friedemann Mörs, Cesare Saccani, Alessandro Guzzini, Marco Pellegrini, Andreas Zauner, Hans Böhm, Darja Markova, Shi You, Martin Pumpa, Frank Fischer, Francesco Sergi, Giovanni Brunaccini, Davide Aloisio, Marco FerraroMachiel Mulder, Hans Rasmusson

*Corresponding author for this work

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Hydrogen and regional energy infrastructure are significant for the European Green Deal and was the focus of the SuperP2G research Project (Synergies Utilising renewable Power Regionally by means of Power to Gas). Five national projects (Denmark, Netherlands, Germany, Austria, and Italy) cooperated to investigate power-to-gas feasibility. The energy crisis due to the war in Ukraine peaked during the project. The demand for green hydrogen increased as natural gas was reduced. In 2022, the cost of blue hydrogen was 9.5–12.6 e/kg. Higher electricity prices impacted the cost of green hydrogen less. Considering the 2021–22 level of electricity and gas prices, and the potential f lexibility of electrolysers, electrolytic hydrogen was on a par with blue hydrogen. On the long term, green hydrogen is assumed to be competitive around 2030. A fast ramping up and favourable electricity cost development could halve the hydrogen production cost until 2040 with investment being the major contributor to a cost reduction. Meanwhile, the smart operation of a wind/electrolyser system might achieve 24% reduction of its operation cost. The following measures are recommended to introduce green hydrogen on a large scale: 1) certification of green and low carbon hydrogen and a uniform CO2 price; 2) ensuring a level playing field across markets; 3) enabling policies to enhance European security of supply by increasing domestic production and diversifying imports; 4) fast ramping of renewable electricity generation; and 5) coordinated planning of hydrogen, methane, and electricity infrastructures.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberoiae001
JournalOxford Open Energy
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • Renewable hydrogen
  • Energy system analysis
  • Hydrogen demand
  • Energy crisis
  • Electrolyser plant design
  • Electrolyser operation optimization
  • Power-to-gas plant location


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