Passive dosing of triclosan in multi-generation tests with copepods - Stable exposure concentrations and effects at the low µg l-1 range

Anton Ribbenstedt, Lukas Mustajärvi, Magnus Breitholtz, Elena Gorokhova, Philipp Mayer, Anna Sobek

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Abstract

Ecotoxicity testing is a crucial component of chemical risk assessment. Still, due to methodological difficulties related to controlling exposure concentrations over time, data on long-term effects of organic chemicals at low concentrations are limited. The aim of the present study was therefore to test the applicability of passive dosing to maintain stable concentrations of the organochlorine bacteriocide triclosan in the water phase during a 6-week multi-generation population development test with the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes. Triclosan was loaded into silicone (1000 mg), which was used as passive dosing phase in the exposure vials. The distribution ratio for triclosan between silicone and water (Dsilicone-water ) was 10466 ± 1927. A population development test was conducted at three concentration levels of triclosan that were measured to be 3-5 µg L(-1) , 7-11 µg L(-1) and 16-26 µg L(-1) . Our results demonstrate that passive dosing is applicable for long-term ecotoxicity testing of organic chemicals, including during significant growth of the test organism population. Shifts in the demographic structure of the population during exposure suggest the most severe effects were exerted on juvenile development. Progressively lower development index values in the populations exposed to increasing triclosan concentrations suggest developmental retardation. Our results further stress the need for chronic exposure during ecotoxicity testing in chemical risk assessment as even the most sensitive endpoint was not significant until after 7 days of exposure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEnvironmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Volume36
Issue number5
Pages (from-to)1254-1260
ISSN0730-7268
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Keywords

  • Chronic toxicity
  • Exposure
  • Passive dosing
  • Silicone
  • Triclosan

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