Passive Cooling Solutions to Improve Thermal Comfort in Polish Dwellings

Joanna Ferdyn-Grygierek*, Krzysztof Grygierek, Anna Guminska, Piotr Krawiec, Adrianna Ocwieja, Robert Poloczek, Julia Szkarlat, Aleksandra Zawartka, Daria Zobczynska, Daria Zukowska-Tejsen

*Corresponding author for this work

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The household sector in Poland consumes more than 25% of final energy. At the same time, residents reported dissatisfaction with the thermal conditions during the summer months. This paper details the search for passive and energy-efficient solutions to improve thermal comfort in Polish dwellings. A five-story, multi-family building was selected for this research. Analyses were conducted in apartments located on the top two floors using EnergyPlus (for thermal calculations) and CONTAM (for air exchange calculations) simulation programs for current and future climatic conditions. The stochastic behavior of people when opening windows and automatically controlled systems supplying external air to the building was considered. Airing the apartments by opening windows increased the heating demand but reduced the number of thermal discomfort hours by over 90%. The degree of airing by opening windows depends on residents opening their windows; therefore, a mechanical supply of external air controlled by both internal and external temperatures was proposed and tested.
Original languageEnglish
Article number3648
Issue number12
Number of pages15
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Thermal comfort
  • Heat demand
  • Dwelling
  • Ventilation
  • Ventilative cooling


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