Partly occupied Wannier functions: Construction and applications

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We have developed a practical scheme to construct partly occupied, maximally localized Wannier functions (WFs) for a wide range of systems. We explain and demonstrate how the inclusion of selected unoccupied states in the definition of the WFs can improve both their localization and symmetry properties. A systematic selection of the relevant unoccupied states is achieved by minimizing the spread of the resulting WFs. The method is applied to a silicon cluster, a copper crystal, and a Cu(100) surface with nitrogen adsorbed. In all cases we demonstrate the existence of a set of WFs with particularly good localization and symmetry properties, and we show that this set of WFs is characterized by a maximal average localization.
Original languageEnglish
JournalPhysical Review B Condensed Matter
Issue number12
Pages (from-to)125119
Publication statusPublished - 2005

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Copyright 2005 American Physical Society

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