Oxidation of X20 in Water Vapour: The Effect of Temperature and Oxygen Partial Pressure

Anette Nørgaard Hansson, Melanie Montgomery, Marcel A. J. Somers

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    The oxidation behaviour of X20 in various mixtures of water, oxygen and hydrogen was investigated at temperatures between 500 C and 700 C (time: 336 h). The samples were characterised using reflected light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy. Double-layered oxides developed during oxidation under all conditions. The morphology of the oxide layers was strongly influenced by temperature, whereas the influence of the oxidising environment appeared to be less pronounced, as long as it contained water vapour. The inner layer consisted of converted M23C6 embedded in Fe–Cr spinel after oxidation at 500 and 600 C, while alternating layers of Cr-rich and Cr-poor oxide were observed after oxidation at 700 C. An internal oxidation zone developed during oxidation at 500 and 600 C, with its depth influenced by the oxidising environments. The results are discussed based on the various hypotheses of the accelerating effect of water vapour that have been put forth in the literature.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalOxidation of Metals
    Issue number3-4
    Pages (from-to)201-218
    Publication statusPublished - 2009


    • Internal oxidation
    • Growth stresses
    • Diffusion
    • Hydrogen
    • Steam oxidation


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