Overnight glucose control in people with type 1 diabetes

Dimitri Boiroux, Anne Katrine Duun-Henriksen, Signe Schmidt, Kirsten Nørgaard, Sten Madsbad, Niels Kjølstad Poulsen, Henrik Madsen, John Bagterp Jørgensen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


This paper presents an individualized model predictive control (MPC) algorithm for overnight blood glucose stabilization in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). The MPC formulation uses an asymmetric objective function that penalizes low glucose levels more heavily. We compute the model parameters in the MPC in a systematic way based on a priori available patient information. The model used by the MPC algorithm for filtering and prediction is an autoregressive integrated moving average with exogenous input (ARIMAX) model implemented as a linear state space model in innovation form. The control algorithm uses frequent glucose measurements from a continuous glucose monitor (CGM) and its decisions are implemented by a continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) pump. We provide guidelines for tuning the control algorithm and computing the Kalman gain in the linear state space model in innovation form. We test the controller on a cohort of 100 randomly generated virtual patients with a representative inter-subject variability. We use the same control algorithm for a feasibility overnight study using 5 real patients. In this study, we compare the performance of this control algorithm with the patient’s usual pump setting. We discuss the results of the numerical simulations and the in vivo clinical study from a control engineering perspective. The results demonstrate that the proposed control strategy increases the time spent in euglycemia.
Original languageEnglish
JournalBiomedical Signal Processing and Control
Pages (from-to)503-512
Publication statusPublished - 2018


  • Model predictive control
  • Glucose control
  • Artificial pancreas
  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Closed-loop control

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