Over 2 Years of Outdoor Operational and Storage Stability of ITO-free, Fully Roll-to-Roll Fabricated Polymer Solar Cell Modules

Dechan Angmo, Frederik C Krebs

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

We report on the stability of large-area (100 cm2), low-cost, indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-free modules over two years (>17 500 h) under outdoor operational conditions in Denmark and under indoor storage condition by following ISOS-O-3 and ISOS-D-2 protocols. Irrespective of the testing regimes (storage and outdoor), all modules maintain the maximum power point (MPP) above T80 (the duration over which a solar cell retains above 80 % of its initial MPP) over two years using a simple low-cost packaging barrier with a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of 0.04 g m-2 day-1, an oxygen transmission rate (OTR) of 0.01 cm3 m-2 bar-1 day-1, and a UV cut-off at 390 nm. Unlike previous studies, localized degradation through edges and contact points in the modules are not overwhelming even after more than two years; therefore, the differences in degradation under long-term outdoor and storage conditions could be probed. The results suggest that oxygen permeation may be mainly responsible for degradation under outdoor conditions, whereas WVTR has a larger bearing under storage conditions.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEnergy Technology
Volume3
Issue number7
Pages (from-to)774-783
Number of pages10
ISSN2194-4288
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Keywords

  • Barrier materials
  • Energy conversion
  • Outdoor
  • Solar cellsstability
  • Oxygen permeable membranes
  • Storage (materials)
  • Tin oxides
  • Barrier material
  • Maximum power point
  • Operational conditions
  • Oxygen transmission rates
  • Polymer Solar Cells
  • Water vapor transmission rate
  • Solar cells

Cite this

@article{89e59d7903404f6887228f7f626bf148,
title = "Over 2 Years of Outdoor Operational and Storage Stability of ITO-free, Fully Roll-to-Roll Fabricated Polymer Solar Cell Modules",
abstract = "We report on the stability of large-area (100 cm2), low-cost, indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-free modules over two years (>17 500 h) under outdoor operational conditions in Denmark and under indoor storage condition by following ISOS-O-3 and ISOS-D-2 protocols. Irrespective of the testing regimes (storage and outdoor), all modules maintain the maximum power point (MPP) above T80 (the duration over which a solar cell retains above 80 {\%} of its initial MPP) over two years using a simple low-cost packaging barrier with a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of 0.04 g m-2 day-1, an oxygen transmission rate (OTR) of 0.01 cm3 m-2 bar-1 day-1, and a UV cut-off at 390 nm. Unlike previous studies, localized degradation through edges and contact points in the modules are not overwhelming even after more than two years; therefore, the differences in degradation under long-term outdoor and storage conditions could be probed. The results suggest that oxygen permeation may be mainly responsible for degradation under outdoor conditions, whereas WVTR has a larger bearing under storage conditions.",
keywords = "Barrier materials, Energy conversion, Outdoor, Solar cellsstability, Oxygen permeable membranes, Storage (materials), Tin oxides, Barrier material, Maximum power point, Operational conditions, Oxygen transmission rates, Polymer Solar Cells, Water vapor transmission rate, Solar cells",
author = "Dechan Angmo and Krebs, {Frederik C}",
year = "2015",
doi = "10.1002/ente.201500086",
language = "English",
volume = "3",
pages = "774--783",
journal = "Energy Technology",
issn = "2194-4288",
publisher = "Wiley - V C H Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA",
number = "7",

}

Over 2 Years of Outdoor Operational and Storage Stability of ITO-free, Fully Roll-to-Roll Fabricated Polymer Solar Cell Modules. / Angmo, Dechan; Krebs, Frederik C.

In: Energy Technology, Vol. 3, No. 7, 2015, p. 774-783.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Over 2 Years of Outdoor Operational and Storage Stability of ITO-free, Fully Roll-to-Roll Fabricated Polymer Solar Cell Modules

AU - Angmo, Dechan

AU - Krebs, Frederik C

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - We report on the stability of large-area (100 cm2), low-cost, indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-free modules over two years (>17 500 h) under outdoor operational conditions in Denmark and under indoor storage condition by following ISOS-O-3 and ISOS-D-2 protocols. Irrespective of the testing regimes (storage and outdoor), all modules maintain the maximum power point (MPP) above T80 (the duration over which a solar cell retains above 80 % of its initial MPP) over two years using a simple low-cost packaging barrier with a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of 0.04 g m-2 day-1, an oxygen transmission rate (OTR) of 0.01 cm3 m-2 bar-1 day-1, and a UV cut-off at 390 nm. Unlike previous studies, localized degradation through edges and contact points in the modules are not overwhelming even after more than two years; therefore, the differences in degradation under long-term outdoor and storage conditions could be probed. The results suggest that oxygen permeation may be mainly responsible for degradation under outdoor conditions, whereas WVTR has a larger bearing under storage conditions.

AB - We report on the stability of large-area (100 cm2), low-cost, indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-free modules over two years (>17 500 h) under outdoor operational conditions in Denmark and under indoor storage condition by following ISOS-O-3 and ISOS-D-2 protocols. Irrespective of the testing regimes (storage and outdoor), all modules maintain the maximum power point (MPP) above T80 (the duration over which a solar cell retains above 80 % of its initial MPP) over two years using a simple low-cost packaging barrier with a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of 0.04 g m-2 day-1, an oxygen transmission rate (OTR) of 0.01 cm3 m-2 bar-1 day-1, and a UV cut-off at 390 nm. Unlike previous studies, localized degradation through edges and contact points in the modules are not overwhelming even after more than two years; therefore, the differences in degradation under long-term outdoor and storage conditions could be probed. The results suggest that oxygen permeation may be mainly responsible for degradation under outdoor conditions, whereas WVTR has a larger bearing under storage conditions.

KW - Barrier materials

KW - Energy conversion

KW - Outdoor

KW - Solar cellsstability

KW - Oxygen permeable membranes

KW - Storage (materials)

KW - Tin oxides

KW - Barrier material

KW - Maximum power point

KW - Operational conditions

KW - Oxygen transmission rates

KW - Polymer Solar Cells

KW - Water vapor transmission rate

KW - Solar cells

U2 - 10.1002/ente.201500086

DO - 10.1002/ente.201500086

M3 - Journal article

VL - 3

SP - 774

EP - 783

JO - Energy Technology

JF - Energy Technology

SN - 2194-4288

IS - 7

ER -