Outlook for Navigation - Comparing Human Performance with a Robotic Solution

Mogens Blanke*, Søren Hansen, Jonathan Dyssel Stets, T. Koester, J. E. Brøsted, Adrian Llopart Maurin, Nicolai Nykvist, J. Bang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingArticle in proceedingsResearchpeer-review

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Considering whether a temporarily unattended bridge could be allowed, Maritime Authorities wish to investigate whether sensor technology is available that, when seconded by sophisticated computer algorithms, is able to provide outlook with the same reliability and safety as that of the average human outlook. This paper reports findings from a comparative study of human versus electronic outlook. Assessment of navigator’s outlook is based on measurements with a wearable eye-tracker and areas of their visual attention are recorded on video. Simultaneously, a set of electro-optical sensors provides image-data as input to computer algorithms that detect and classify objects at sea within visual range. The paper presents the methodology used to deduct, from the observations of fixations, when the navigator turned his attention to a particular object and compares this with the Electronic Outlook. On the technology side, the paper details on how machine learning is used for object detection and classification, an discusses quality attributes, including efficiency and robustness of detection and classification, expressed through statistical measures.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationICMASS 2018. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships
Number of pages9
Publication date2019
ISBN (Print)978-82-536-1628-5
Publication statusPublished - 2019
EventInternational Conference on Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships - Busan Exhibition and Convention Center, Busan, Korea, Republic of
Duration: 8 Nov 20189 Nov 2018


ConferenceInternational Conference on Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships
LocationBusan Exhibition and Convention Center
CountryKorea, Republic of


  • Outlook for navigation
  • Autonomous vessels
  • Electronic outlook
  • Human outlook

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