Three different distributed Raman amplification schemes-backward pumping, bidirectional pumping, and second-order pumping-are evaluated numerically for 160-Gb/s single-channel transmission. The same longest transmission distance of 2500 km is achieved for all three pumping methods with a 105-km span composed of superlarge effective area fiber and inverse dispersion fiber. For longest system reach, second-order pumping and backward pumping have larger pump power tolerance than bidirectional pumping, while the optimal span input signal power margin of second-order pumping is the largest and gets 5-dB improvement compared to backward pumping. Span loss tolerance increased to 140 km with more than 2000-km reach. Optimal signal power variation at both ends of the span can provide about 6-dB positive net gain.
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Xu, L., Rottwitt, K., Peucheret, C., & Jeppesen, P. (2004). Optimization of pumping schemes for 160-Gb/s single channel Raman amplified systems. I E E E Photonics Technology Letters, 16(1), 329-331. https://doi.org/10.1109/LPT.2003.820477