Optimization of lithium adsorption from seawater via aluminum chloride as adsorbent using response surface methodology

Maham Hussain*, Fahim Uddin, Nadeem Raza, Waqas Aleem, Sadiq Hussain, Alamin Idris, Salman Qadir

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Lithium extraction from natural resources is an accelerating field of research owing to its growing demand in the medical, nuclear, battery, and air conditioning industries. Lithium compounds are used in various industries, including ceramics, glass, lubricant gases, rocket propellant, and aluminum production. The extraction of lithium from seawater via adsorption using AlCl3.6 H2O as an adsorbent is investigated in this study. The effect of process parameters such as pH, temperature, contact time, the molar ratio ([Al3+]/[Li+]), and stirring rate on process efficiency is investigated and optimized. The response surface methodology (RSM) is used to investigate the effects of operating parameters and choose the optimal configuration. A standard synthetic solution containing 50 ppm lithium is prepared and experimented with facilitating comprehension of the procedure. The adsorption efficiency of a synthetic solution is 88% at optimized values, while that of seawater is 78.5%. Seawater has a lower efficiency because it contains ions such as Mg2+, Ca2+, K+, and Na+ that compete for active points/sites during adsorption with lithium ions (Li+).

Original languageEnglish
JournalEnergy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)2907-2921
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • Adsorption
  • Lithium
  • Optimization
  • Response surface approach
  • Seawater


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