This paper proposes a new scheme for bulk system restoration considering the available black-start resources (BSRs) in the distribution system (DS). The DS assisted generator startup sequence (D-GSS) scheme is realized in a decentralized way, so that it does not only benefit the bulk system GSS by utilizing available BSRs in the DS, but also respects the independent operation of the transmission system operator (TSO) and distribution system operators (DSOs). First, the decentralized D-GSS scheme is presented including the interaction of the TSO and DSOs and the corresponding compact models. The models of the decentralized D-GSS scheme are built with the bulk system GSS modeled as a mixed-integer quadratic program (MIQP), the DS multi-step operation modeled as mixed-integer second-order conic programs (MISOCPs) and reliable power supply assessments of renewable energy sources as linear programs (LPs). Finally, a projection function based analytical target cascading (P-ATC) method is developed to iteratively solve the decentralized models with model complexity reduction. The P-ATC algorithm can handle integer variables and improve the computational efficiency of the iterative calculation process. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated using the small-scale T6D2 system and largescale T118D5 system, showing good GSS performance and computation efficiency.
- Distributed optimization
- Generator start-up
- Transmission and distribution system
- Power system resilience