Optimal dispatch for participation of electric vehicles in frequency regulation based on area control error and area regulation requirement

Hui Liu*, Kai Huang, Ni Wang, Junjian Qi, Qiuwei Wu, Shicong Ma, Canbing Li

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


In this paper, optimal strategies are proposed for electric vehicles in charging stations to participate in the secondary frequency regulation, while considering their charging demands. In order to fairly allocate the dispatch from the control center among electric vehicles according to their charging demands, two optimal real-time strategies are proposed, respectively based on area control error and area regulation requirement. With the proposed strategies, the expected charging of electric vehicles is optimally tracked in real time by using the regulation task from the control center. Simulations on a two-area interconnected power grid show that the proposed two strategies can respectively lead to a 12.66% and 16.78% frequency deviation reduction and a 13.76% and 9.86% generator regulation reduction. At the same time, the charging demands of EVs can also be ensured.
Original languageEnglish
JournalApplied Energy
Pages (from-to)46-55
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • Area control error
  • Area regulation requirement
  • Charging demand
  • Electric vehicle
  • Optimal dispatch
  • Vehicle to grid control

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