Optical detection of radio waves through a nanomechanical transducer

Tolga Bagci, A Simonsen, Silvan Schmid, Luis Guillermo Villanueva Torrijo, Emil Zeuthen, Jürgen Appel, J. M. Taylor, A Sørensen, Koji Usami, Albert Schliesser, Eugene Simon Polzik

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

    Abstract

    Low-loss transmission and sensitive recovery of weak radio-frequency (rf) and microwave signals is an ubiquitous technological challenge, crucial in fields as diverse as radio astronomy, medical imaging, navigation and communication, including those of quantum states. Efficient upconversion of rf-signals to an optical carrier would allow transmitting them via optical fibers instead of copper wires dramatically reducing losses, and give access to the mature toolbox of quantum optical techniques, routinely enabling quantum-limited signal detection. Research in the field of cavity optomechanics [1, 2] has shown that nanomechanical oscillators can couple very strongly to either microwave [3–5] or optical fields [6, 7]. An oscillator accommodating both these functionalities would bear great promise as the intermediate platform in a radio-to-optical transduction cascade. Here, we demonstrate such an opto-electro-mechanical transducer following a recent proposal [8] utilizing a high-Q nanomembrane. A moderate voltage bias (Vdc < 10V) is sufficient to induce strong coupling [4, 6, 7] between the voltage fluctuations in a radio-frequency resonance circuit and the membrane’s displacement,
    which is simultaneously coupled to light reflected off its metallized surface. The circuit acts as an antenna; the voltage signals it induces are detected as an optical phase shift with quantum-limited sensitivity. The corresponding half-wave voltage is in the microvolt range, orders of magnitude below that of standard optical modulators. The noise added by the mechanical interface is suppressed by the electro-mechanical cooperativity Cem 6800 and has a temperature of TN = Tm/Cem 40mK, where Tm is the room temperature at which the entire device is operated. This corresponds to a sensitivity limit as low as 5 pV/pHz, or −210dBm/Hz in a narrow frequency band around 1MHz. Our work introduces an entirely new approach to all-optical, ultralow-noise detection of classical electronic signals, and sets the stage for coherent upconversion of low-frequency quantum signals to the optical domain [8–12].
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalApplied Physics B
    Number of pages19
    ISSN0946-2171
    Publication statusPublished - 2013

    Cite this

    Bagci, T., Simonsen, A., Schmid, S., Villanueva Torrijo, L. G., Zeuthen, E., Appel, J., ... Polzik, E. S. (2013). Optical detection of radio waves through a nanomechanical transducer. Applied Physics B.
    Bagci, Tolga ; Simonsen, A ; Schmid, Silvan ; Villanueva Torrijo, Luis Guillermo ; Zeuthen, Emil ; Appel, Jürgen ; M. Taylor, J. ; Sørensen, A ; Usami, Koji ; Schliesser, Albert ; Polzik, Eugene Simon. / Optical detection of radio waves through a nanomechanical transducer. In: Applied Physics B. 2013.
    @article{3341454f8e004692ba5b7e9ecd87ee04,
    title = "Optical detection of radio waves through a nanomechanical transducer",
    abstract = "Low-loss transmission and sensitive recovery of weak radio-frequency (rf) and microwave signals is an ubiquitous technological challenge, crucial in fields as diverse as radio astronomy, medical imaging, navigation and communication, including those of quantum states. Efficient upconversion of rf-signals to an optical carrier would allow transmitting them via optical fibers instead of copper wires dramatically reducing losses, and give access to the mature toolbox of quantum optical techniques, routinely enabling quantum-limited signal detection. Research in the field of cavity optomechanics [1, 2] has shown that nanomechanical oscillators can couple very strongly to either microwave [3–5] or optical fields [6, 7]. An oscillator accommodating both these functionalities would bear great promise as the intermediate platform in a radio-to-optical transduction cascade. Here, we demonstrate such an opto-electro-mechanical transducer following a recent proposal [8] utilizing a high-Q nanomembrane. A moderate voltage bias (Vdc < 10V) is sufficient to induce strong coupling [4, 6, 7] between the voltage fluctuations in a radio-frequency resonance circuit and the membrane’s displacement, which is simultaneously coupled to light reflected off its metallized surface. The circuit acts as an antenna; the voltage signals it induces are detected as an optical phase shift with quantum-limited sensitivity. The corresponding half-wave voltage is in the microvolt range, orders of magnitude below that of standard optical modulators. The noise added by the mechanical interface is suppressed by the electro-mechanical cooperativity Cem 6800 and has a temperature of TN = Tm/Cem 40mK, where Tm is the room temperature at which the entire device is operated. This corresponds to a sensitivity limit as low as 5 pV/pHz, or −210dBm/Hz in a narrow frequency band around 1MHz. Our work introduces an entirely new approach to all-optical, ultralow-noise detection of classical electronic signals, and sets the stage for coherent upconversion of low-frequency quantum signals to the optical domain [8–12].",
    author = "Tolga Bagci and A Simonsen and Silvan Schmid and {Villanueva Torrijo}, {Luis Guillermo} and Emil Zeuthen and J{\"u}rgen Appel and {M. Taylor}, J. and A S{\o}rensen and Koji Usami and Albert Schliesser and Polzik, {Eugene Simon}",
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    Bagci, T, Simonsen, A, Schmid, S, Villanueva Torrijo, LG, Zeuthen, E, Appel, J, M. Taylor, J, Sørensen, A, Usami, K, Schliesser, A & Polzik, ES 2013, 'Optical detection of radio waves through a nanomechanical transducer', Applied Physics B.

    Optical detection of radio waves through a nanomechanical transducer. / Bagci, Tolga; Simonsen, A ; Schmid, Silvan; Villanueva Torrijo, Luis Guillermo; Zeuthen, Emil; Appel, Jürgen; M. Taylor, J. ; Sørensen, A; Usami, Koji; Schliesser, Albert; Polzik, Eugene Simon.

    In: Applied Physics B, 2013.

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Optical detection of radio waves through a nanomechanical transducer

    AU - Bagci, Tolga

    AU - Simonsen, A

    AU - Schmid, Silvan

    AU - Villanueva Torrijo, Luis Guillermo

    AU - Zeuthen, Emil

    AU - Appel, Jürgen

    AU - M. Taylor, J.

    AU - Sørensen, A

    AU - Usami, Koji

    AU - Schliesser, Albert

    AU - Polzik, Eugene Simon

    PY - 2013

    Y1 - 2013

    N2 - Low-loss transmission and sensitive recovery of weak radio-frequency (rf) and microwave signals is an ubiquitous technological challenge, crucial in fields as diverse as radio astronomy, medical imaging, navigation and communication, including those of quantum states. Efficient upconversion of rf-signals to an optical carrier would allow transmitting them via optical fibers instead of copper wires dramatically reducing losses, and give access to the mature toolbox of quantum optical techniques, routinely enabling quantum-limited signal detection. Research in the field of cavity optomechanics [1, 2] has shown that nanomechanical oscillators can couple very strongly to either microwave [3–5] or optical fields [6, 7]. An oscillator accommodating both these functionalities would bear great promise as the intermediate platform in a radio-to-optical transduction cascade. Here, we demonstrate such an opto-electro-mechanical transducer following a recent proposal [8] utilizing a high-Q nanomembrane. A moderate voltage bias (Vdc < 10V) is sufficient to induce strong coupling [4, 6, 7] between the voltage fluctuations in a radio-frequency resonance circuit and the membrane’s displacement, which is simultaneously coupled to light reflected off its metallized surface. The circuit acts as an antenna; the voltage signals it induces are detected as an optical phase shift with quantum-limited sensitivity. The corresponding half-wave voltage is in the microvolt range, orders of magnitude below that of standard optical modulators. The noise added by the mechanical interface is suppressed by the electro-mechanical cooperativity Cem 6800 and has a temperature of TN = Tm/Cem 40mK, where Tm is the room temperature at which the entire device is operated. This corresponds to a sensitivity limit as low as 5 pV/pHz, or −210dBm/Hz in a narrow frequency band around 1MHz. Our work introduces an entirely new approach to all-optical, ultralow-noise detection of classical electronic signals, and sets the stage for coherent upconversion of low-frequency quantum signals to the optical domain [8–12].

    AB - Low-loss transmission and sensitive recovery of weak radio-frequency (rf) and microwave signals is an ubiquitous technological challenge, crucial in fields as diverse as radio astronomy, medical imaging, navigation and communication, including those of quantum states. Efficient upconversion of rf-signals to an optical carrier would allow transmitting them via optical fibers instead of copper wires dramatically reducing losses, and give access to the mature toolbox of quantum optical techniques, routinely enabling quantum-limited signal detection. Research in the field of cavity optomechanics [1, 2] has shown that nanomechanical oscillators can couple very strongly to either microwave [3–5] or optical fields [6, 7]. An oscillator accommodating both these functionalities would bear great promise as the intermediate platform in a radio-to-optical transduction cascade. Here, we demonstrate such an opto-electro-mechanical transducer following a recent proposal [8] utilizing a high-Q nanomembrane. A moderate voltage bias (Vdc < 10V) is sufficient to induce strong coupling [4, 6, 7] between the voltage fluctuations in a radio-frequency resonance circuit and the membrane’s displacement, which is simultaneously coupled to light reflected off its metallized surface. The circuit acts as an antenna; the voltage signals it induces are detected as an optical phase shift with quantum-limited sensitivity. The corresponding half-wave voltage is in the microvolt range, orders of magnitude below that of standard optical modulators. The noise added by the mechanical interface is suppressed by the electro-mechanical cooperativity Cem 6800 and has a temperature of TN = Tm/Cem 40mK, where Tm is the room temperature at which the entire device is operated. This corresponds to a sensitivity limit as low as 5 pV/pHz, or −210dBm/Hz in a narrow frequency band around 1MHz. Our work introduces an entirely new approach to all-optical, ultralow-noise detection of classical electronic signals, and sets the stage for coherent upconversion of low-frequency quantum signals to the optical domain [8–12].

    M3 - Journal article

    JO - Applied Physics B

    JF - Applied Physics B

    SN - 0946-2171

    ER -

    Bagci T, Simonsen A, Schmid S, Villanueva Torrijo LG, Zeuthen E, Appel J et al. Optical detection of radio waves through a nanomechanical transducer. Applied Physics B. 2013.