Operative temperature drifts and occupant satisfaction with thermal environment in three office buildings using radiant heating/ cooling system

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The objective of this study was to analyse operative temperature drifts and occupant satisfaction with thermal environment in office buildings utilizing embedded radiant heating/cooling systems. Three office buildings were investigated: Town Hall in Viborg, Denmark (floor area 19400 m2), IDOM, Madrid, Spain (16000 m2), TiFS, Padua, Italy (2200 m2). Continuous measurements of operative temperature were conducted at four workplaces in each building for one year. Occupants’ satisfaction was assessed by internet based questionnaire. Results showed that mostly exceeded limits were those for 4-hour drift (0.8 K/h), which were exceeded at least in 2% and up to 52% of occupied time in investigated buildings. Limits for hourly and 2-hour drifts were exceeded in max. 2% of occupied time. Median values were in ranges of 0.12-0.29 K/h, 0.18-0.52 K/h and 0.27-0.84 K/h for 1, 2 and 4-hour drifts respectively. Occupants’ in all buildings were rather satisfied with temperature conditions. Median temperature satisfaction (0="Clearly satisfied" - 5="Clearly dissatisfied") was 2, 1 and 1 for Viborg, Madrid and Padua respectively. Temperature satisfaction slightly decreased when rate of temperature change increased, thus higher temperature drifts seemed to lead to higher dissatisfaction, however the collected data did not allow for robust statistical analysis.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of Healthy Buildings Europe 2015
Number of pages8
Publication date2015
Publication statusPublished - 2015
EventHealthy Buildings Europe 2015 - Eindhoven, Netherlands
Duration: 18 May 201520 May 2015


ConferenceHealthy Buildings Europe 2015
Internet address


  • Operative temperature drift
  • Thermal comfort
  • Radiant heating/cooling

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