Future electricity production will use fossil-free sources with zero CO2 emission or closed carbon cycle technologies based on renewable sources. While hydrogen is considered a key energy source, its production at present time relies heavily on fossil fuels. Furthermore, distribution and storage are not well established and require substantial investments. This is a strong motivation to identify alternative, safe, high power density hydrogen carriers, where existing logistics and infrastructure can be utilized. In this contribution, ammonia and biogas are considered for high-efficient electricity production in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). It is demonstrated that the properties and operating conditions of SOFC allow for direct use of these fuels, with fuel pretreatment inside the SOFC anode. The high efficient electricity production using pure ammonia or real biogas was successfully proven on state-of-the-art SOFCs. Even without optimization of operating parameters, electrical efficiencies of 40–50% and high and stable power output were demonstrated.
- Hydrogen carrier