Open die forging of large shafts with porosity defects – physical and numerical modelling

Peter Christiansen, Jesper Henri Hattel, Niels Bay, Luis M. Alves, Paulo A. F. Martins

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The aim and scope of this paper is centered to analyze the influence of the geometry of V-shaped dies on the closure of internal centerline porosity defects in ingots during multistep open-die forging. The investigation is performed with small scale physical models made from lead using V-shaped dies with 90o and 120o and a reference pair of flat parallel platens. Holes drilled through the center of these preforms are produced to mimic centerline porosity in full scale cast ingots and intermediate rotation of the preforms replicate a multi-stage forging sequence under laboratory testing conditions. The presentation is supported by finite element modelling using an in-house developed computer program and the overall investigation shows that better results in closure of centerline defects are obtained with a V-shaped die with 120º die angle.
Original languageEnglish
JournalKey Engineering Materials
Pages (from-to)2145-2155
Publication statusPublished - 2013
Event16th annual ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming - Aveiro, Portugal
Duration: 22 Apr 201324 Apr 2013


Conference16th annual ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming
Internet address


  • Open die forging
  • V-shaped dies
  • Centerline porosity
  • Experimentation
  • Finite element modelling


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