Topology optimization using gradient search with negative and positive elliptical masks and honeycomb tessellation is presented. Through a novel skeletonization algorithm for topologies defined using filled and void hexagonal cells/elements, explicit minimum and maximum length scales are imposed on solid states in the solutions. An analytical example is presented suggesting that for a skeletonized topology, optimal solutions may not always exist for any specified volume fraction, minimum and maximum length scales, and that there may exist implicit interdependence between them. A sequence for length scale (SLS) methodology is proposed wherein solutions are sought by specifying only the minimum and maximum length scales with volume fraction getting determined within a specified range systematically. Through four benchmark problems in small deformation topology optimization, it is demonstrated that solutions by-and-large satisfy the length scale constraints though the latter may get violated at certain local sites. The proposed approach seems promising, noting especially that solutions, if rendered perfectly black and white with minimum length scale explicitly imposed and boundaries smoothened, are quite close in performance compared with the parent topologies. Attaining volume-distributed topologies, wherein members are more or less of the same thickness, may also be possible with the proposed approach.
- Topology optimization
- Honeycomb tessellation
- Explicit length scales
- Elliptical positive and negative masks