Increasing the level of wind power penetration beyond the present level in the Danish power system implies large challenges when it comes to energy management and system stability. Plug-in electric vehicles promise to contribute to the flexibility of the energy system by creating a link between the power system and the transportation sector and provide the possibility to make use of the inherent energy storage of a large electric vehicle (EV) fleet. The present work investigates the effects of different EV charging strategies on the balance between wind power production and consumption in a future Danish power system. The results show that an electrification of the transport sector will indeed reduce the excess of wind power, but additional mechanisms are needed if the full wind power potential in Denmark is utilized. Further it is foreseen that the vehicle-to-grid option (where the vehicle batteries are used as backup at times with little wind power production) will have very limited effects on the overall energy management and is more likely to be used only for regulation and reserve services, also in the longer perspective.
- Batteries and carbon-free energy storage
- Materials and energy storage
Krog Ekman, C. (2011). On the synergy between large electric vehicle fleet and high wind penetration – An analysis of the Danish case. Renewable Energy, 36(2), 546-553. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2010.08.001