On the effective atomic number and electron density: A comprehensive set of formulas for all types of materials and energies above 1 keV

S.R. Manohara, S.M. Hanagodimath, K.S. Thind, Leif Gerward

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


A comprehensive and consistent set of formulas is given for calculating the effective atomic number and electron density for all types of materials and for all photon energies greater than 1 keV. The are derived from first principles using photon interaction cross sections of the constituent atoms. The theory is illustrated by calculations and experiments for molecules of medical and biological interest, glasses for radiation shielding, alloys, minerals and liquids.
Original languageEnglish
JournalNuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section B-beam Interactions With Materials and Atoms
Issue number18
Pages (from-to)3906-3912
Publication statusPublished - 2008


  • Glasses
  • Electron density
  • Effective atomic number
  • Alloys
  • X-ray and gamma ray interaction with matter
  • Minerals
  • Liquids
  • Bio-molecules

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