On Feasibility of Autonomous Frequency-Support Provision From Offshore HVDC Grids

Ali Bidadfar*, Oscar Saborío-Romano, Jayachandra N. Sakamuri, Nicolaos Antonio Cutululis, Vladislav Akhmatov, Poul E. Sorensen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Offshore multi-terminal high-voltage dc (HVDC) grids are emerging as a technical reliable and economical solution to transfer more offshore wind energy to inland power grids. It is also envisaged that the offshore HVDC grids pave the way for both offshore wind participation and sharing inland frequency reserves for efficient power systems’ frequency control. The frequency control mechanism in an HVDC grid can be either centralized or decentralized. An autonomous frequency control (AFC) is a decentralized control, which does not require communication links between dc grid terminals. In the AFC, the dc-link voltage is used as a medium to reflect the inland frequency change to other terminals. The AFC has some technical and non-technical challenges, especially when the dc grid is connected to more than one shore ac systems. Among challenges of the AFC are the deficiency in meeting grid code requirements, adverse reaction of converters, dc voltage variations, difficulties of offshore wind participation in power markets. This paper proposes a new methodology of frequency control which uses both centralized control and AFC simultaneously. The proposed methodology shall improve system security and mitigate the listed problems of the AFC. A four-terminal dc grid is described and used for analysis and demonstration of the proposed methodology.
Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Issue number6
Pages (from-to)2711-2721
Number of pages11
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • HVDC grids
  • Frequency control
  • Offshore wind
  • Power system

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