Ocean predation and mortality of adult Atlantic salmon

John Fredrik Strøm*, Audun Håvard Rikardsen, Steven E Campana, David Righton, Jonathan Carr, Kim Aarestrup, Michael J W Stokesbury, Patrick Gargan, Pablo Caballero Javierre, Eva Bonsak Thorstad

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Predation and mortality are often difficult to estimate in the ocean, which hampers the management and conservation of marine fishes. We used data from pop-up satellite archival tags to investigate the ocean predation and mortality of adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) released from 12 rivers flowing into the North Atlantic Ocean. Data from 156 tagged fish revealed 22 definite predation events (14%) and 38 undetermined mortalities (24%). Endothermic fish were the most common predators (n = 13), with most of these predation events occurring in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and from the Bay of Biscay to the Irish Shelf. Predation by marine mammals, most likely large deep-diving toothed whales (n = 5), and large ectothermic fish (n = 4) were less frequent. Both the estimated predation rates (ZP) and total mortality rates (ZM) where higher for Atlantic salmon from Canada, Ireland, and Spain (ZP = 0.60-1.32 y-1, ZM = 1.73-3.08 y-1) than from Denmark and Norway (ZP = 0-0.13 y-1, ZM = 0.19-1.03 y-1). This geographical variation in ocean mortality correlates with ongoing population declines, which are more profound for southern populations, indicating that low ocean survival of adults may act as an additional stressor to already vulnerable populations.
Original languageEnglish
Article number7890
JournalScientific Reports
Volume9
ISSN2045-2322
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Keywords

  • Ecology
  • Ichthyology

Cite this

Strøm, J. F., Rikardsen, A. H., Campana, S. E., Righton, D., Carr, J., Aarestrup, K., ... Thorstad, E. B. (2019). Ocean predation and mortality of adult Atlantic salmon. Scientific Reports, 9, [7890]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-44041-5
Strøm, John Fredrik ; Rikardsen, Audun Håvard ; Campana, Steven E ; Righton, David ; Carr, Jonathan ; Aarestrup, Kim ; Stokesbury, Michael J W ; Gargan, Patrick ; Javierre, Pablo Caballero ; Thorstad, Eva Bonsak. / Ocean predation and mortality of adult Atlantic salmon. In: Scientific Reports. 2019 ; Vol. 9.
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abstract = "Predation and mortality are often difficult to estimate in the ocean, which hampers the management and conservation of marine fishes. We used data from pop-up satellite archival tags to investigate the ocean predation and mortality of adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) released from 12 rivers flowing into the North Atlantic Ocean. Data from 156 tagged fish revealed 22 definite predation events (14{\%}) and 38 undetermined mortalities (24{\%}). Endothermic fish were the most common predators (n = 13), with most of these predation events occurring in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and from the Bay of Biscay to the Irish Shelf. Predation by marine mammals, most likely large deep-diving toothed whales (n = 5), and large ectothermic fish (n = 4) were less frequent. Both the estimated predation rates (ZP) and total mortality rates (ZM) where higher for Atlantic salmon from Canada, Ireland, and Spain (ZP = 0.60-1.32 y-1, ZM = 1.73-3.08 y-1) than from Denmark and Norway (ZP = 0-0.13 y-1, ZM = 0.19-1.03 y-1). This geographical variation in ocean mortality correlates with ongoing population declines, which are more profound for southern populations, indicating that low ocean survival of adults may act as an additional stressor to already vulnerable populations.",
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author = "Str{\o}m, {John Fredrik} and Rikardsen, {Audun H{\aa}vard} and Campana, {Steven E} and David Righton and Jonathan Carr and Kim Aarestrup and Stokesbury, {Michael J W} and Patrick Gargan and Javierre, {Pablo Caballero} and Thorstad, {Eva Bonsak}",
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Strøm, JF, Rikardsen, AH, Campana, SE, Righton, D, Carr, J, Aarestrup, K, Stokesbury, MJW, Gargan, P, Javierre, PC & Thorstad, EB 2019, 'Ocean predation and mortality of adult Atlantic salmon', Scientific Reports, vol. 9, 7890. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-44041-5

Ocean predation and mortality of adult Atlantic salmon. / Strøm, John Fredrik; Rikardsen, Audun Håvard; Campana, Steven E; Righton, David; Carr, Jonathan; Aarestrup, Kim; Stokesbury, Michael J W; Gargan, Patrick; Javierre, Pablo Caballero; Thorstad, Eva Bonsak.

In: Scientific Reports, Vol. 9, 7890, 2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Ocean predation and mortality of adult Atlantic salmon

AU - Strøm, John Fredrik

AU - Rikardsen, Audun Håvard

AU - Campana, Steven E

AU - Righton, David

AU - Carr, Jonathan

AU - Aarestrup, Kim

AU - Stokesbury, Michael J W

AU - Gargan, Patrick

AU - Javierre, Pablo Caballero

AU - Thorstad, Eva Bonsak

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Predation and mortality are often difficult to estimate in the ocean, which hampers the management and conservation of marine fishes. We used data from pop-up satellite archival tags to investigate the ocean predation and mortality of adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) released from 12 rivers flowing into the North Atlantic Ocean. Data from 156 tagged fish revealed 22 definite predation events (14%) and 38 undetermined mortalities (24%). Endothermic fish were the most common predators (n = 13), with most of these predation events occurring in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and from the Bay of Biscay to the Irish Shelf. Predation by marine mammals, most likely large deep-diving toothed whales (n = 5), and large ectothermic fish (n = 4) were less frequent. Both the estimated predation rates (ZP) and total mortality rates (ZM) where higher for Atlantic salmon from Canada, Ireland, and Spain (ZP = 0.60-1.32 y-1, ZM = 1.73-3.08 y-1) than from Denmark and Norway (ZP = 0-0.13 y-1, ZM = 0.19-1.03 y-1). This geographical variation in ocean mortality correlates with ongoing population declines, which are more profound for southern populations, indicating that low ocean survival of adults may act as an additional stressor to already vulnerable populations.

AB - Predation and mortality are often difficult to estimate in the ocean, which hampers the management and conservation of marine fishes. We used data from pop-up satellite archival tags to investigate the ocean predation and mortality of adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) released from 12 rivers flowing into the North Atlantic Ocean. Data from 156 tagged fish revealed 22 definite predation events (14%) and 38 undetermined mortalities (24%). Endothermic fish were the most common predators (n = 13), with most of these predation events occurring in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and from the Bay of Biscay to the Irish Shelf. Predation by marine mammals, most likely large deep-diving toothed whales (n = 5), and large ectothermic fish (n = 4) were less frequent. Both the estimated predation rates (ZP) and total mortality rates (ZM) where higher for Atlantic salmon from Canada, Ireland, and Spain (ZP = 0.60-1.32 y-1, ZM = 1.73-3.08 y-1) than from Denmark and Norway (ZP = 0-0.13 y-1, ZM = 0.19-1.03 y-1). This geographical variation in ocean mortality correlates with ongoing population declines, which are more profound for southern populations, indicating that low ocean survival of adults may act as an additional stressor to already vulnerable populations.

KW - Ecology

KW - Ichthyology

U2 - 10.1038/s41598-019-44041-5

DO - 10.1038/s41598-019-44041-5

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 31133666

VL - 9

JO - Scientific Reports

JF - Scientific Reports

SN - 2045-2322

M1 - 7890

ER -