Occurrence of Furnonisins B2 and B4 in Retail Raisins

Peter Boldsen Knudsen, Jesper Mølgaard Mogensen, Thomas Ostenfeld Larsen, Kristian Fog Nielsen

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


    Concerns that raisins may be contaminated by fumonisins stem from the persistent occurrence of Aspergillus niger spores on raisins and the recent discovery of fumonisin production by A. niger on grapes, which leads to the widespread occurrence of fumonisin B-2 in wine. This study presents an LC-MS/MS survey of fumonisins in retail raisins. In 10 of 21 brands collected in Denmark, Germany, and The Netherlands, fumonisins B-2 and B-4 were detected at levels up to 13 and 1.3 mu g/kg, respectively. Only fumonisin B-2 has been detected in wine, so the presence of fumonisin B-4 in raisins suggests that the fumonisins are produced mainly during the drying process concomitant with the decreasing water activity. Analysis of multiple packages from one manufacturer showed a 3-fold package-to-package variation, suggesting that a few raisins per package are contaminated.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
    Issue number2
    Pages (from-to)772-776
    Publication statusPublished - 2011


    • Fumonisins B2 and B4
    • SPE
    • Cation exchange
    • Grapes
    • Solid-phase extraction
    • Wine

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