Occurrence of filamentous fungi and mycotoxins in wrapped forages in Sweden and Norway and their relation to chemical composition and management

Jessica Schenck, Cecilia Müller, Annika Djurle, Dan Funck Jensen, Martin O’Brien, Astrid Zedlitz Johansen, Peter Have Rasmussen, Rolf Spörndly*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

A study was conducted on 124 farms in Sweden and Norway where fungal (all farms) and mycotoxin (100 of the 124 farms) presence was examined in wrapped forage bales. Samples were also analysed for chemical composition, and data on the bale production and storage system on each farm were collected. Fungi, analysed by three common sampling methods, were found in bales from 89% of the visited farms (110 farms). The most frequently isolated fungal species from the bale surface was Penicillium roqueforti. Mycotoxins were present in 39% of the 100 samples analysed. The most common mycotoxins present were enniatin B (14 farms) followed by deoxynivalenol (12 farms). The risk of finding fungi in baled forage samples was higher with odds ratio (OR) of 5.1 when less than eight layers of stretch film were applied, low seal integrity of wrapping (OR 172 at <10 s of seal integrity), higher dry‐matter content (OR 1.17–1.56 per % unit DM) and higher concentrations of acetic acid (OR 47.5 per g DM) and ethanol (OR 3.4 per g DM). Mycotoxin presence was not found to be correlated with any of the chemical characteristics of the baled forage, or with any forage production and management factors. A positive correlation was present between total fungal counts and general mycotoxin presence, but not between specific mycotoxins and the toxin‐producing fungal species.
Original languageEnglish
JournalGrass and Forage Science
Volume74
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)613-625
ISSN0142-5242
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Keywords

  • Bales
  • Haylage
  • Hygienic quality
  • Management
  • Mould
  • Silage

Cite this

Schenck, Jessica ; Müller, Cecilia ; Djurle, Annika ; Jensen, Dan Funck ; O’Brien, Martin ; Johansen, Astrid Zedlitz ; Rasmussen, Peter Have ; Spörndly, Rolf. / Occurrence of filamentous fungi and mycotoxins in wrapped forages in Sweden and Norway and their relation to chemical composition and management. In: Grass and Forage Science. 2019 ; Vol. 74, No. 4. pp. 613-625.
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title = "Occurrence of filamentous fungi and mycotoxins in wrapped forages in Sweden and Norway and their relation to chemical composition and management",
abstract = "A study was conducted on 124 farms in Sweden and Norway where fungal (all farms) and mycotoxin (100 of the 124 farms) presence was examined in wrapped forage bales. Samples were also analysed for chemical composition, and data on the bale production and storage system on each farm were collected. Fungi, analysed by three common sampling methods, were found in bales from 89{\%} of the visited farms (110 farms). The most frequently isolated fungal species from the bale surface was Penicillium roqueforti. Mycotoxins were present in 39{\%} of the 100 samples analysed. The most common mycotoxins present were enniatin B (14 farms) followed by deoxynivalenol (12 farms). The risk of finding fungi in baled forage samples was higher with odds ratio (OR) of 5.1 when less than eight layers of stretch film were applied, low seal integrity of wrapping (OR 172 at <10 s of seal integrity), higher dry‐matter content (OR 1.17–1.56 per {\%} unit DM) and higher concentrations of acetic acid (OR 47.5 per g DM) and ethanol (OR 3.4 per g DM). Mycotoxin presence was not found to be correlated with any of the chemical characteristics of the baled forage, or with any forage production and management factors. A positive correlation was present between total fungal counts and general mycotoxin presence, but not between specific mycotoxins and the toxin‐producing fungal species.",
keywords = "Bales, Haylage, Hygienic quality, Management, Mould, Silage",
author = "Jessica Schenck and Cecilia M{\"u}ller and Annika Djurle and Jensen, {Dan Funck} and Martin O’Brien and Johansen, {Astrid Zedlitz} and Rasmussen, {Peter Have} and Rolf Sp{\"o}rndly",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1111/gfs.12453",
language = "English",
volume = "74",
pages = "613--625",
journal = "Grass and Forage Science",
issn = "0142-5242",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
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}

Occurrence of filamentous fungi and mycotoxins in wrapped forages in Sweden and Norway and their relation to chemical composition and management. / Schenck, Jessica; Müller, Cecilia; Djurle, Annika; Jensen, Dan Funck; O’Brien, Martin; Johansen, Astrid Zedlitz; Rasmussen, Peter Have; Spörndly, Rolf.

In: Grass and Forage Science, Vol. 74, No. 4, 2019, p. 613-625.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Occurrence of filamentous fungi and mycotoxins in wrapped forages in Sweden and Norway and their relation to chemical composition and management

AU - Schenck, Jessica

AU - Müller, Cecilia

AU - Djurle, Annika

AU - Jensen, Dan Funck

AU - O’Brien, Martin

AU - Johansen, Astrid Zedlitz

AU - Rasmussen, Peter Have

AU - Spörndly, Rolf

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - A study was conducted on 124 farms in Sweden and Norway where fungal (all farms) and mycotoxin (100 of the 124 farms) presence was examined in wrapped forage bales. Samples were also analysed for chemical composition, and data on the bale production and storage system on each farm were collected. Fungi, analysed by three common sampling methods, were found in bales from 89% of the visited farms (110 farms). The most frequently isolated fungal species from the bale surface was Penicillium roqueforti. Mycotoxins were present in 39% of the 100 samples analysed. The most common mycotoxins present were enniatin B (14 farms) followed by deoxynivalenol (12 farms). The risk of finding fungi in baled forage samples was higher with odds ratio (OR) of 5.1 when less than eight layers of stretch film were applied, low seal integrity of wrapping (OR 172 at <10 s of seal integrity), higher dry‐matter content (OR 1.17–1.56 per % unit DM) and higher concentrations of acetic acid (OR 47.5 per g DM) and ethanol (OR 3.4 per g DM). Mycotoxin presence was not found to be correlated with any of the chemical characteristics of the baled forage, or with any forage production and management factors. A positive correlation was present between total fungal counts and general mycotoxin presence, but not between specific mycotoxins and the toxin‐producing fungal species.

AB - A study was conducted on 124 farms in Sweden and Norway where fungal (all farms) and mycotoxin (100 of the 124 farms) presence was examined in wrapped forage bales. Samples were also analysed for chemical composition, and data on the bale production and storage system on each farm were collected. Fungi, analysed by three common sampling methods, were found in bales from 89% of the visited farms (110 farms). The most frequently isolated fungal species from the bale surface was Penicillium roqueforti. Mycotoxins were present in 39% of the 100 samples analysed. The most common mycotoxins present were enniatin B (14 farms) followed by deoxynivalenol (12 farms). The risk of finding fungi in baled forage samples was higher with odds ratio (OR) of 5.1 when less than eight layers of stretch film were applied, low seal integrity of wrapping (OR 172 at <10 s of seal integrity), higher dry‐matter content (OR 1.17–1.56 per % unit DM) and higher concentrations of acetic acid (OR 47.5 per g DM) and ethanol (OR 3.4 per g DM). Mycotoxin presence was not found to be correlated with any of the chemical characteristics of the baled forage, or with any forage production and management factors. A positive correlation was present between total fungal counts and general mycotoxin presence, but not between specific mycotoxins and the toxin‐producing fungal species.

KW - Bales

KW - Haylage

KW - Hygienic quality

KW - Management

KW - Mould

KW - Silage

U2 - 10.1111/gfs.12453

DO - 10.1111/gfs.12453

M3 - Journal article

VL - 74

SP - 613

EP - 625

JO - Grass and Forage Science

JF - Grass and Forage Science

SN - 0142-5242

IS - 4

ER -