Occurrence of cyclic imines in European commercial seafood and consumers risk assessment

Maria Rambla-Alegre*, Christopher O. Miles, Pablo de la Iglesia, Margarita Fernandez-Tejedor, Silke Jacobs, Isabelle Sioen, Wim Verbeke, Ingunn A. Samdal, Morten Sandvik, Vera Barbosa, Alice Tediosi, Eneko Madorran, Kit Granby, Michiel Kotterman, Tanja Calis, Jorge Diogene

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Cyclic imines constitute a quite recently discovered group of marine biotoxins that act on neural receptors and that bioaccumulate in seafood. They are grouped together due to the imino group functioning as their common pharmacore, responsible for acute neurotoxicity in mice. Cyclic imines (CIs) have not been linked yet to human poisoning and are not regulated in the European Union (EU), although the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) requires more data to perform conclusive risk assessment for consumers. Several commercial samples of bivalves including raw and processed samples from eight countries (Italy, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Ireland, Norway, The Netherlands and Denmark) were obtained over 2 years. Emerging cyclic imine concentrations in all the samples were analysed on a LC-3200QTRAP and LC-HRMS QExactive mass spectrometer. In shellfish, two CIs, pinnatoxin G (PnTX-G) and 13-desmethylspirolide C (SPX-1) were found at low concentrations (0.1–12 µg/kg PnTX-G and 26–66 µg/kg SPX-1), while gymnodimines and pteriatoxins were not detected in commercial (raw and processed) samples. In summary, SPX-1 (n: 47) and PnTX-G (n: 96) were detected in 9.4% and 4.2% of the samples, respectively, at concentrations higher than the limit of quantification (LOQ), and in 7.3% and 31.2% of the samples at concentrations lower than the LOQ (25 µg/kg for SPX-1 and 3 µg/kg for PnTX-G), respectively. For the detected cyclic imines, the average exposure and the 95th percentile were calculated. The results obtained indicate that it is unlikely that a potential health risk exists through the seafood diet for CIs in the EU. However, further information about CIs is necessary in order to perform a conclusive risk assessment.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEnvironmental Research
Volume161
Pages (from-to)392-398
Number of pages7
ISSN0013-9351
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2018

Keywords

  • Cyclic imines
  • Marine toxins
  • Mass spectrometry
  • Risk assessment
  • Shellfish

Cite this

Rambla-Alegre, M., Miles, C. O., de la Iglesia, P., Fernandez-Tejedor, M., Jacobs, S., Sioen, I., ... Diogene, J. (2018). Occurrence of cyclic imines in European commercial seafood and consumers risk assessment. Environmental Research, 161, 392-398. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2017.11.028
Rambla-Alegre, Maria ; Miles, Christopher O. ; de la Iglesia, Pablo ; Fernandez-Tejedor, Margarita ; Jacobs, Silke ; Sioen, Isabelle ; Verbeke, Wim ; Samdal, Ingunn A. ; Sandvik, Morten ; Barbosa, Vera ; Tediosi, Alice ; Madorran, Eneko ; Granby, Kit ; Kotterman, Michiel ; Calis, Tanja ; Diogene, Jorge. / Occurrence of cyclic imines in European commercial seafood and consumers risk assessment. In: Environmental Research. 2018 ; Vol. 161. pp. 392-398.
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title = "Occurrence of cyclic imines in European commercial seafood and consumers risk assessment",
abstract = "Cyclic imines constitute a quite recently discovered group of marine biotoxins that act on neural receptors and that bioaccumulate in seafood. They are grouped together due to the imino group functioning as their common pharmacore, responsible for acute neurotoxicity in mice. Cyclic imines (CIs) have not been linked yet to human poisoning and are not regulated in the European Union (EU), although the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) requires more data to perform conclusive risk assessment for consumers. Several commercial samples of bivalves including raw and processed samples from eight countries (Italy, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Ireland, Norway, The Netherlands and Denmark) were obtained over 2 years. Emerging cyclic imine concentrations in all the samples were analysed on a LC-3200QTRAP and LC-HRMS QExactive mass spectrometer. In shellfish, two CIs, pinnatoxin G (PnTX-G) and 13-desmethylspirolide C (SPX-1) were found at low concentrations (0.1–12 µg/kg PnTX-G and 26–66 µg/kg SPX-1), while gymnodimines and pteriatoxins were not detected in commercial (raw and processed) samples. In summary, SPX-1 (n: 47) and PnTX-G (n: 96) were detected in 9.4{\%} and 4.2{\%} of the samples, respectively, at concentrations higher than the limit of quantification (LOQ), and in 7.3{\%} and 31.2{\%} of the samples at concentrations lower than the LOQ (25 µg/kg for SPX-1 and 3 µg/kg for PnTX-G), respectively. For the detected cyclic imines, the average exposure and the 95th percentile were calculated. The results obtained indicate that it is unlikely that a potential health risk exists through the seafood diet for CIs in the EU. However, further information about CIs is necessary in order to perform a conclusive risk assessment.",
keywords = "Cyclic imines, Marine toxins, Mass spectrometry, Risk assessment, Shellfish",
author = "Maria Rambla-Alegre and Miles, {Christopher O.} and {de la Iglesia}, Pablo and Margarita Fernandez-Tejedor and Silke Jacobs and Isabelle Sioen and Wim Verbeke and Samdal, {Ingunn A.} and Morten Sandvik and Vera Barbosa and Alice Tediosi and Eneko Madorran and Kit Granby and Michiel Kotterman and Tanja Calis and Jorge Diogene",
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Rambla-Alegre, M, Miles, CO, de la Iglesia, P, Fernandez-Tejedor, M, Jacobs, S, Sioen, I, Verbeke, W, Samdal, IA, Sandvik, M, Barbosa, V, Tediosi, A, Madorran, E, Granby, K, Kotterman, M, Calis, T & Diogene, J 2018, 'Occurrence of cyclic imines in European commercial seafood and consumers risk assessment', Environmental Research, vol. 161, pp. 392-398. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2017.11.028

Occurrence of cyclic imines in European commercial seafood and consumers risk assessment. / Rambla-Alegre, Maria; Miles, Christopher O.; de la Iglesia, Pablo; Fernandez-Tejedor, Margarita; Jacobs, Silke; Sioen, Isabelle; Verbeke, Wim; Samdal, Ingunn A.; Sandvik, Morten; Barbosa, Vera; Tediosi, Alice; Madorran, Eneko; Granby, Kit; Kotterman, Michiel; Calis, Tanja; Diogene, Jorge.

In: Environmental Research, Vol. 161, 01.02.2018, p. 392-398.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Occurrence of cyclic imines in European commercial seafood and consumers risk assessment

AU - Rambla-Alegre, Maria

AU - Miles, Christopher O.

AU - de la Iglesia, Pablo

AU - Fernandez-Tejedor, Margarita

AU - Jacobs, Silke

AU - Sioen, Isabelle

AU - Verbeke, Wim

AU - Samdal, Ingunn A.

AU - Sandvik, Morten

AU - Barbosa, Vera

AU - Tediosi, Alice

AU - Madorran, Eneko

AU - Granby, Kit

AU - Kotterman, Michiel

AU - Calis, Tanja

AU - Diogene, Jorge

PY - 2018/2/1

Y1 - 2018/2/1

N2 - Cyclic imines constitute a quite recently discovered group of marine biotoxins that act on neural receptors and that bioaccumulate in seafood. They are grouped together due to the imino group functioning as their common pharmacore, responsible for acute neurotoxicity in mice. Cyclic imines (CIs) have not been linked yet to human poisoning and are not regulated in the European Union (EU), although the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) requires more data to perform conclusive risk assessment for consumers. Several commercial samples of bivalves including raw and processed samples from eight countries (Italy, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Ireland, Norway, The Netherlands and Denmark) were obtained over 2 years. Emerging cyclic imine concentrations in all the samples were analysed on a LC-3200QTRAP and LC-HRMS QExactive mass spectrometer. In shellfish, two CIs, pinnatoxin G (PnTX-G) and 13-desmethylspirolide C (SPX-1) were found at low concentrations (0.1–12 µg/kg PnTX-G and 26–66 µg/kg SPX-1), while gymnodimines and pteriatoxins were not detected in commercial (raw and processed) samples. In summary, SPX-1 (n: 47) and PnTX-G (n: 96) were detected in 9.4% and 4.2% of the samples, respectively, at concentrations higher than the limit of quantification (LOQ), and in 7.3% and 31.2% of the samples at concentrations lower than the LOQ (25 µg/kg for SPX-1 and 3 µg/kg for PnTX-G), respectively. For the detected cyclic imines, the average exposure and the 95th percentile were calculated. The results obtained indicate that it is unlikely that a potential health risk exists through the seafood diet for CIs in the EU. However, further information about CIs is necessary in order to perform a conclusive risk assessment.

AB - Cyclic imines constitute a quite recently discovered group of marine biotoxins that act on neural receptors and that bioaccumulate in seafood. They are grouped together due to the imino group functioning as their common pharmacore, responsible for acute neurotoxicity in mice. Cyclic imines (CIs) have not been linked yet to human poisoning and are not regulated in the European Union (EU), although the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) requires more data to perform conclusive risk assessment for consumers. Several commercial samples of bivalves including raw and processed samples from eight countries (Italy, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Ireland, Norway, The Netherlands and Denmark) were obtained over 2 years. Emerging cyclic imine concentrations in all the samples were analysed on a LC-3200QTRAP and LC-HRMS QExactive mass spectrometer. In shellfish, two CIs, pinnatoxin G (PnTX-G) and 13-desmethylspirolide C (SPX-1) were found at low concentrations (0.1–12 µg/kg PnTX-G and 26–66 µg/kg SPX-1), while gymnodimines and pteriatoxins were not detected in commercial (raw and processed) samples. In summary, SPX-1 (n: 47) and PnTX-G (n: 96) were detected in 9.4% and 4.2% of the samples, respectively, at concentrations higher than the limit of quantification (LOQ), and in 7.3% and 31.2% of the samples at concentrations lower than the LOQ (25 µg/kg for SPX-1 and 3 µg/kg for PnTX-G), respectively. For the detected cyclic imines, the average exposure and the 95th percentile were calculated. The results obtained indicate that it is unlikely that a potential health risk exists through the seafood diet for CIs in the EU. However, further information about CIs is necessary in order to perform a conclusive risk assessment.

KW - Cyclic imines

KW - Marine toxins

KW - Mass spectrometry

KW - Risk assessment

KW - Shellfish

U2 - 10.1016/j.envres.2017.11.028

DO - 10.1016/j.envres.2017.11.028

M3 - Journal article

VL - 161

SP - 392

EP - 398

JO - Environmental Research

JF - Environmental Research

SN - 0013-9351

ER -

Rambla-Alegre M, Miles CO, de la Iglesia P, Fernandez-Tejedor M, Jacobs S, Sioen I et al. Occurrence of cyclic imines in European commercial seafood and consumers risk assessment. Environmental Research. 2018 Feb 1;161:392-398. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2017.11.028