Occurrence of Aspergillus section Flavi and aflatoxins in Brazilian rice: From field to market

Aline M. Katsurayama, Ligia Manoel Martins, Beatriz T. Iamanaka, Maria Helena P. Fungaro, Josué J da Silva, Jens Christian Frisvad, John I. Pitt, Marta H. Taniwaki*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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The guarantee of the high quality of rice is of utmost importance because any toxic contaminant may affect consumer health, especially in countries such as Brazil where rice is part of the daily diet. A total of 187 rice samples, from field, processing and market from two different production systems, wetland from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, dryland, from the state of Maranhão and market samples from the state of São Paulo, were analyzed for fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi and the presence of aflatoxins. Twenty-three soil samples from wetland and dryland were also analyzed. A total of 383 Aspergillus section Flavi strains were isolated from rice and soil samples. Using a polyphasic approach, with phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles) and molecular data (beta-tubulin gene sequences), five species were identified: A. flavus, A. caelatus, A. novoparasiticus, A. arachidicola and A. pseudocaelatus. This is the first report of these last three species from rice and rice plantation soil. Only seven (17%) of the A. flavus isolates produced type B aflatoxins, but 95% produced kojic acid and 69% cyclopiazonic acid. Less than 14% of the rice samples were contaminated with aflatoxins, but two of the market samples were well above the maximum tolerable limit (5 μg/kg), established by the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency.
Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Food Microbiology
Pages (from-to)213-221
Number of pages31
Publication statusPublished - 2018


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