Observational needs of sea surface temperature

Anne G. O'Carroll*, Edward M. Armstrong, Helen Beggs, Marouan Bouali, Kenneth S. Casey, Gary K. Corlett, Prasanjit Dash, Craig Donlon, Chelle L. Gentemann, Jacob L. Høyer, Alexander Ignatov, Kamila Kabobah, Misako Kachi, Yukio Kurihara, Ioanna Karagali, Eileen Maturi, Christopher J. Merchant, Salvatore Marullo, Peter Minnett, Matthew PennybackerBalaji Ramakrishnan, R. A. A. J. Ramsankaran, Rosalia Santoleri, Swathy Sunder, Stéphane Saux Picart, Jorge Vázquez-Cuervo, Werenfrid Wimmer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReviewResearchpeer-review

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Abstract

Sea surface temperature (SST) is a fundamental physical variable for understanding, quantifying and predicting complex interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere. Such processes determine how heat from the sun is redistributed across the global oceans, directly impacting large- and small-scale weather and climate patterns. The provision of daily maps of global SST for operational systems, climate modelling and the broader scientific community is now a mature and sustained service coordinated by the Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) and the CEOS SST Virtual Constellation (CEOS SST-VC). Data streams are shared, indexed, processed, quality controlled, analyzed, and documented within a Regional/Global Task Sharing (R/GTS) framework, which is implemented internationally in a distributed manner. Products rely on a combination of low-Earth orbit infrared and microwave satellite imagery, geostationary orbit infrared satellite imagery, and in situ data from moored and drifting buoys, Argo floats, and a suite of independent, fully characterized and traceable in situ measurements for product validation (Fiducial Reference Measurements, FRM). Research and development continues to tackle problems such as instrument calibration, algorithm development, diurnal variability, derivation of high-quality skin and depth temperatures, and areas of specific interest such as the high latitudes and coastal areas. In this white paper, we review progress versus the challenges we set out 10 years ago in a previous paper, highlight remaining and new research and development challenges for the next 10 years (such as the need for sustained continuity of passive microwave SST using a 6.9 GHz channel), and conclude with needs to achieve an integrated global high-resolution SST observing system, with focus on satellite observations exploited in conjunction with in situ SSTs. The paper directly relates to the theme of Data Information Systems and also contributes to Ocean Observing Governance and Ocean Technology and Networks within the OceanObs2019 objectives. Applications of SST contribute to all the seven societal benefits, covering Discovery; Ecosystem Health & Biodiversity; Climate Variability & Change; Water, Food, & Energy Security; Pollution & Human Health; Hazards and Maritime Safety; and the Blue Economy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number420
JournalFrontiers in Marine Science
Volume6
ISSN2296-7745
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Keywords

  • Climate data records (CDR)
  • FRM
  • GHRSST
  • Observations
  • Operational oceanography
  • Satellite
  • Sea surface temperature (SST)
  • In situ

Cite this

O'Carroll, A. G., Armstrong, E. M., Beggs, H., Bouali, M., Casey, K. S., Corlett, G. K., ... Wimmer, W. (2019). Observational needs of sea surface temperature. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, [420]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00420
O'Carroll, Anne G. ; Armstrong, Edward M. ; Beggs, Helen ; Bouali, Marouan ; Casey, Kenneth S. ; Corlett, Gary K. ; Dash, Prasanjit ; Donlon, Craig ; Gentemann, Chelle L. ; Høyer, Jacob L. ; Ignatov, Alexander ; Kabobah, Kamila ; Kachi, Misako ; Kurihara, Yukio ; Karagali, Ioanna ; Maturi, Eileen ; Merchant, Christopher J. ; Marullo, Salvatore ; Minnett, Peter ; Pennybacker, Matthew ; Ramakrishnan, Balaji ; Ramsankaran, R. A. A. J. ; Santoleri, Rosalia ; Sunder, Swathy ; Picart, Stéphane Saux ; Vázquez-Cuervo, Jorge ; Wimmer, Werenfrid. / Observational needs of sea surface temperature. In: Frontiers in Marine Science. 2019 ; Vol. 6.
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abstract = "Sea surface temperature (SST) is a fundamental physical variable for understanding, quantifying and predicting complex interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere. Such processes determine how heat from the sun is redistributed across the global oceans, directly impacting large- and small-scale weather and climate patterns. The provision of daily maps of global SST for operational systems, climate modelling and the broader scientific community is now a mature and sustained service coordinated by the Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) and the CEOS SST Virtual Constellation (CEOS SST-VC). Data streams are shared, indexed, processed, quality controlled, analyzed, and documented within a Regional/Global Task Sharing (R/GTS) framework, which is implemented internationally in a distributed manner. Products rely on a combination of low-Earth orbit infrared and microwave satellite imagery, geostationary orbit infrared satellite imagery, and in situ data from moored and drifting buoys, Argo floats, and a suite of independent, fully characterized and traceable in situ measurements for product validation (Fiducial Reference Measurements, FRM). Research and development continues to tackle problems such as instrument calibration, algorithm development, diurnal variability, derivation of high-quality skin and depth temperatures, and areas of specific interest such as the high latitudes and coastal areas. In this white paper, we review progress versus the challenges we set out 10 years ago in a previous paper, highlight remaining and new research and development challenges for the next 10 years (such as the need for sustained continuity of passive microwave SST using a 6.9 GHz channel), and conclude with needs to achieve an integrated global high-resolution SST observing system, with focus on satellite observations exploited in conjunction with in situ SSTs. The paper directly relates to the theme of Data Information Systems and also contributes to Ocean Observing Governance and Ocean Technology and Networks within the OceanObs2019 objectives. Applications of SST contribute to all the seven societal benefits, covering Discovery; Ecosystem Health & Biodiversity; Climate Variability & Change; Water, Food, & Energy Security; Pollution & Human Health; Hazards and Maritime Safety; and the Blue Economy.",
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author = "O'Carroll, {Anne G.} and Armstrong, {Edward M.} and Helen Beggs and Marouan Bouali and Casey, {Kenneth S.} and Corlett, {Gary K.} and Prasanjit Dash and Craig Donlon and Gentemann, {Chelle L.} and H{\o}yer, {Jacob L.} and Alexander Ignatov and Kamila Kabobah and Misako Kachi and Yukio Kurihara and Ioanna Karagali and Eileen Maturi and Merchant, {Christopher J.} and Salvatore Marullo and Peter Minnett and Matthew Pennybacker and Balaji Ramakrishnan and Ramsankaran, {R. A. A. J.} and Rosalia Santoleri and Swathy Sunder and Picart, {St{\'e}phane Saux} and Jorge V{\'a}zquez-Cuervo and Werenfrid Wimmer",
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language = "English",
volume = "6",
journal = "Frontiers in Marine Science",
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O'Carroll, AG, Armstrong, EM, Beggs, H, Bouali, M, Casey, KS, Corlett, GK, Dash, P, Donlon, C, Gentemann, CL, Høyer, JL, Ignatov, A, Kabobah, K, Kachi, M, Kurihara, Y, Karagali, I, Maturi, E, Merchant, CJ, Marullo, S, Minnett, P, Pennybacker, M, Ramakrishnan, B, Ramsankaran, RAAJ, Santoleri, R, Sunder, S, Picart, SS, Vázquez-Cuervo, J & Wimmer, W 2019, 'Observational needs of sea surface temperature', Frontiers in Marine Science, vol. 6, 420. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00420

Observational needs of sea surface temperature. / O'Carroll, Anne G.; Armstrong, Edward M.; Beggs, Helen; Bouali, Marouan; Casey, Kenneth S.; Corlett, Gary K.; Dash, Prasanjit; Donlon, Craig; Gentemann, Chelle L.; Høyer, Jacob L.; Ignatov, Alexander; Kabobah, Kamila; Kachi, Misako; Kurihara, Yukio; Karagali, Ioanna; Maturi, Eileen; Merchant, Christopher J.; Marullo, Salvatore; Minnett, Peter; Pennybacker, Matthew; Ramakrishnan, Balaji; Ramsankaran, R. A. A. J.; Santoleri, Rosalia; Sunder, Swathy; Picart, Stéphane Saux; Vázquez-Cuervo, Jorge; Wimmer, Werenfrid.

In: Frontiers in Marine Science, Vol. 6, 420, 2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalReviewResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Observational needs of sea surface temperature

AU - O'Carroll, Anne G.

AU - Armstrong, Edward M.

AU - Beggs, Helen

AU - Bouali, Marouan

AU - Casey, Kenneth S.

AU - Corlett, Gary K.

AU - Dash, Prasanjit

AU - Donlon, Craig

AU - Gentemann, Chelle L.

AU - Høyer, Jacob L.

AU - Ignatov, Alexander

AU - Kabobah, Kamila

AU - Kachi, Misako

AU - Kurihara, Yukio

AU - Karagali, Ioanna

AU - Maturi, Eileen

AU - Merchant, Christopher J.

AU - Marullo, Salvatore

AU - Minnett, Peter

AU - Pennybacker, Matthew

AU - Ramakrishnan, Balaji

AU - Ramsankaran, R. A. A. J.

AU - Santoleri, Rosalia

AU - Sunder, Swathy

AU - Picart, Stéphane Saux

AU - Vázquez-Cuervo, Jorge

AU - Wimmer, Werenfrid

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Sea surface temperature (SST) is a fundamental physical variable for understanding, quantifying and predicting complex interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere. Such processes determine how heat from the sun is redistributed across the global oceans, directly impacting large- and small-scale weather and climate patterns. The provision of daily maps of global SST for operational systems, climate modelling and the broader scientific community is now a mature and sustained service coordinated by the Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) and the CEOS SST Virtual Constellation (CEOS SST-VC). Data streams are shared, indexed, processed, quality controlled, analyzed, and documented within a Regional/Global Task Sharing (R/GTS) framework, which is implemented internationally in a distributed manner. Products rely on a combination of low-Earth orbit infrared and microwave satellite imagery, geostationary orbit infrared satellite imagery, and in situ data from moored and drifting buoys, Argo floats, and a suite of independent, fully characterized and traceable in situ measurements for product validation (Fiducial Reference Measurements, FRM). Research and development continues to tackle problems such as instrument calibration, algorithm development, diurnal variability, derivation of high-quality skin and depth temperatures, and areas of specific interest such as the high latitudes and coastal areas. In this white paper, we review progress versus the challenges we set out 10 years ago in a previous paper, highlight remaining and new research and development challenges for the next 10 years (such as the need for sustained continuity of passive microwave SST using a 6.9 GHz channel), and conclude with needs to achieve an integrated global high-resolution SST observing system, with focus on satellite observations exploited in conjunction with in situ SSTs. The paper directly relates to the theme of Data Information Systems and also contributes to Ocean Observing Governance and Ocean Technology and Networks within the OceanObs2019 objectives. Applications of SST contribute to all the seven societal benefits, covering Discovery; Ecosystem Health & Biodiversity; Climate Variability & Change; Water, Food, & Energy Security; Pollution & Human Health; Hazards and Maritime Safety; and the Blue Economy.

AB - Sea surface temperature (SST) is a fundamental physical variable for understanding, quantifying and predicting complex interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere. Such processes determine how heat from the sun is redistributed across the global oceans, directly impacting large- and small-scale weather and climate patterns. The provision of daily maps of global SST for operational systems, climate modelling and the broader scientific community is now a mature and sustained service coordinated by the Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) and the CEOS SST Virtual Constellation (CEOS SST-VC). Data streams are shared, indexed, processed, quality controlled, analyzed, and documented within a Regional/Global Task Sharing (R/GTS) framework, which is implemented internationally in a distributed manner. Products rely on a combination of low-Earth orbit infrared and microwave satellite imagery, geostationary orbit infrared satellite imagery, and in situ data from moored and drifting buoys, Argo floats, and a suite of independent, fully characterized and traceable in situ measurements for product validation (Fiducial Reference Measurements, FRM). Research and development continues to tackle problems such as instrument calibration, algorithm development, diurnal variability, derivation of high-quality skin and depth temperatures, and areas of specific interest such as the high latitudes and coastal areas. In this white paper, we review progress versus the challenges we set out 10 years ago in a previous paper, highlight remaining and new research and development challenges for the next 10 years (such as the need for sustained continuity of passive microwave SST using a 6.9 GHz channel), and conclude with needs to achieve an integrated global high-resolution SST observing system, with focus on satellite observations exploited in conjunction with in situ SSTs. The paper directly relates to the theme of Data Information Systems and also contributes to Ocean Observing Governance and Ocean Technology and Networks within the OceanObs2019 objectives. Applications of SST contribute to all the seven societal benefits, covering Discovery; Ecosystem Health & Biodiversity; Climate Variability & Change; Water, Food, & Energy Security; Pollution & Human Health; Hazards and Maritime Safety; and the Blue Economy.

KW - Climate data records (CDR)

KW - FRM

KW - GHRSST

KW - Observations

KW - Operational oceanography

KW - Satellite

KW - Sea surface temperature (SST)

KW - In situ

U2 - 10.3389/fmars.2019.00420

DO - 10.3389/fmars.2019.00420

M3 - Review

AN - SCOPUS:85069774779

VL - 6

JO - Frontiers in Marine Science

JF - Frontiers in Marine Science

SN - 2296-7745

M1 - 420

ER -

O'Carroll AG, Armstrong EM, Beggs H, Bouali M, Casey KS, Corlett GK et al. Observational needs of sea surface temperature. Frontiers in Marine Science. 2019;6. 420. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00420